A Coordinated Strategy Could Focus Federal Geoengineering Research and Inform Governance Efforts

GAO-10-903: Published: Sep 23, 2010. Publicly Released: Oct 26, 2010.

Policymakers have raised questions about geoengineering–large-scale deliberate interventions in the earth’s climate system to diminish climate change or its impacts–and its role in a broader strategy of mitigating and adapting to climate change. Most geoengineering proposals fall into two categories: carbon dioxide removal (CDR), which would remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere, and solar radiation management (SRM), which would offset temperature increases by reflecting sunlight back into space. GAO was asked to examine (1) the state of geoengineering science, (2) federal involvement in geoengineering, and (3) the views of experts and federal officials about the extent to which federal laws and international agreements apply to geoengineering, and any governance challenges. GAO examined relevant scientific and policy studies, relevant domestic laws and international agreements, analyzed agency data describing relevant research for fiscal years 2009 and 2010, and interviewed federal officials and selected recognized experts in the field.

Few geoengineering experiments or modeling studies have been conducted, and major uncertainties remain on the efficacy and potential consequences of geoengineering approaches. GAO’s review of relevant studies and discussions with selected experts indicated that relatively more laboratory and field research relevant to certain CDR approaches exists, although most of this research was not designed to apply to geoengineering. In contrast, few modeling studies or field experiments have focused on SRM approaches, according to experts and recent studies. Experts identified only one SRM field experiment with published results–a 2009 Russian experiment that injected aerosols into the middle troposphere to measure their reflectivity. Experts, as well as relevant studies, identified several major uncertainties in need of further investigation for CDR and SRM. Federal agencies identified 52 research activities, totalling about $100.9 million, relevant to geoengineering during fiscal years 2009 and 2010. GAO’s analysis found that 43 activities, totalling about $99 million, focused either on mitigation strategies or basic science. Most of the research focused on mitigation efforts, such as geological sequestration of CO2, which were identified as relevant to CDR approaches but not designed to address them directly. GAO found that nine activities, totalling about $1.9 million, directly investigated SRM or less conventional CDR approaches. Officials from interagency bodies coordinating federal responses to climate change indicated that their offices have not developed a coordinated strategy, and believe that, due to limited federal investment, it is premature to coordinate geoengineering activities. However, federal officials also noted that a large share of existing federal climate science research could be relevant to geoengineering.

Agencies requested roughly $2 billion for such activities in fiscal year 2010.

Without a coordinated federal strategy for geoengineering, it is difficult for agencies to determine the extent of relevant research, and policymakers may lack key information to inform subsequent decisions on geoengineering and existing climate science efforts.

According to legal experts and federal officials, the extent to which federal laws and international agreements apply to geoengineering is unclear. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has taken steps to regulate one CDR approach and has determined that it has sufficient authority to regulate two other approaches. EPA officials said EPA has not assessed the applicability of other laws because geoengineering research is in its initial stages. Similarly, legal experts and Department of State officials said that, except for three instances, parties to international agreements have not addressed their agreements’ applicability to geoengineering, largely due to limited geoengineering activity and awareness of the issue. Legal experts’ and officials’ views differed on the best approach for international governance, but generally agreed that the federal government should take a coordinated, interagency approach on domestic regulation. Experts and officials also identified governance challenges, such as the need to address liability. GAO recommends that within the Executive Office of the President, the appropriate entities, such as the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), establish a clear strategy for geoengineering research in the context of the federal response to climate change to ensure a coordinated federal approach. OSTP neither agreed nor disagreed with our recommendation, but provided technical comments.


Weather Modification Association Annual Meeting

An Opportunity to Learn, Meet & Network with Worldwide Members

The 2018 Annual Meeting will take place in Estes Park, Colorado on April 24-27, 2018. The meeting will feature technical sessions that will inform and educate attendees about current research and operations occurring in the field of weather modification.

On Thursday afternoon, a workshop will be held in conjunction with the ASCE to discuss the latest Standard Practice for Design, Conduct and Evaluation of Operational Precipitation Enhancement Projects (ASCE document 42-17). Details on the workshop will be posted as they become available.

Online registration will be posted in January 2018 with more details regarding the meeting. See you in Colorado!

WMA conferences wouldn’t be possible without the financial support of our sponsors. Becoming a sponsor is a great chance to promote your program, company, or institution. Thank you for considering to help host this annual event!



1 September 2009

Top science body calls for geoengineering ‘plan B’

Computer artwork of a large mirror (circular) in Earth orbit with a spacecraft (lower left). The mirror is designed to shield the Earth (lower right) from the sun (behind mirror), in an attempt to control changes in the climate of the Earth. This proposed method is one of several that could be used to reduce the effects of human-made global warming. Many such mirrors would be needed.

Computer artwork of a large mirror (circular) in Earth orbit with a spacecraft (lower left). The mirror is designed to shield the Earth (lower right) from the sun (behind mirror), in an attempt to control changes in the climate of the Earth. This proposed method is one of several that could be used to reduce the effects of human-made global warming. Many such mirrors would be needed.

(Image: Victor Habbick Visions/SPL)

The most promising method in terms of cost and effectiveness would be to pump sulphate particles into the stratosphere

The most promising method in terms of cost and effectiveness would be to pump sulphate particles into the stratosphere

Comment and analysis: Do mention the ‘G’ word

Take note: the back-up plan for saving the world is no joke. A major scientific institution has published a comprehensive review of possible ways to engineer the climate to reverse global warming.

The UK Royal Society‘s review of geoengineering will make it difficult for governments to ignore the issue. It says that while reducing emissions of greenhouse gases “absolutely” must remain a priority, there is a serious chance that this will not be enough to stave off global warming of 2 °C.

“My guess would be that there is a 50-50 chance that we can achieve something with emissions reductions,” says John Shepherd of the University of Southampton in the UK, chair of the Royal Society group behind the report.

If humanity wants to avoid the worst effects of climate change, it must be ready to safely deploy geoengineering methods as and when necessary, the report says. “We are already staring 1.6 °C in the face,” says Shepherd.

He believes we should know some time in the next two decades whether or not efforts to curb emissions will be enough to avoid 2 °C of warming. If not, his personal view is that we should be prepared for a two-step plan B.

Sun shield

Step one: deploy some sort of sun shield to deflect solar energy away from Earth. Reflective technologies could cool the planet within a year, and according to the Royal Society’s findings the most promising method in terms of cost and effectiveness would be to pump sulphate particles into the stratosphere (see illustration). However, this will not curb ocean acidification and other side effects of greenhouse emissions, and could disrupt weather patterns, so another method is required.

Step two: enact a means of sucking carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere. Several methods are already being investigated, which fall broadly into two categories: “tech-heavy” solutions, such as artificial trees that filter air and extract CO2 for storage, and “biological” methods, such as planting trees, using biofuels and fertilising the oceans.

According to Shepherd, tech-heavy methods are preferable because they are less likely to interfere with complex ecosystems. “Most of the things that have gone wrong in the past have happened when we’ve tampered with biological systems,” he says.

Geoengineering methods have so far been on the fringe of climate discussions and research. Few, if any, could be developed tomorrow or even tested on a large scale. The Royal Society report calls on the UK government to invest £10 million a year towards an international research effort into geoengineering. This amounts to roughly 10 per cent of the UK climate research budget.

Another unresolved issue is for governments to agree on how to regulate geoengineering efforts. The Royal Society proposes that the UN Commission for Sustainable Development be charged with the task. It also suggests the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change should establish a geoengineering working group.

Bandwagon rolling

Such an international effort is conceivable. There are signs that the field is increasingly being taken seriously at national and international levels. Earlier this month the US National Academies tweaked the remit of its climate panel such that it will now assess geo-engineering proposals. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change will decide next month whether or not to do the same.

“It is clear that a lot of people are arguing that the IPCC should include an assessment of geoengineering in its next report,” says Ottmar Edenhofer of the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research in Germany and co-chair of one of the IPCC’s three working groups. More worryingly, perhaps, military and naval representatives have also taken to attending research and policy workshops on the topic.

The Royal Society gave some reassurance that discussions of geo-engineering will not deflate the public will to cut emissions. Results from focus groups suggested that the fact that scientists are giving geo-engineering serious thought could be enough to spur people into acting on climate change. Whether this will hold true for politicians remains to be seen.

Inventor of Cloud Seeding Created ‘Weather Weapons of War’

Oct 10, 2017 Aaron Dykes

The Real Reason Weather IS Manipulated

While everyone is busy arguing that control over weather doesn’t exist, or that those who claim it does are crazy, conspiratorial nutters, actual history reveals that it not only exists, but was developed for an ulterior motive.

This video provides an interesting bit on General Electric’s Irving Langmuir, his ties to the brothers Vonnegut, and the military’s attempts at destroying the enemy with wicked weather.

In the sources shown in the video, Irving Langmuir and others admit to a) steering hurricanes, b) causing a 1947 and 1948 hurricane to change course, resulting in the coastal destruction of American cities that wouldn’t have been hit by hurricanes, c) seeding clouds, changing ice/snow and rain patterns, d) creating the conditions for floods in the early 1950s which caused destruction and property damage throughout the mid-west, Galveston, Texas, e) seeding clouds in New Mexico that either denied rain to the Eastern coast of the U.S. or overwhelmed other areas with too much rain… and well, much more.


US Urged to Study Weather for War Use
US Urged to Study Weather for War Use

Irving Langmuir himself, though he called for using weather as a weapon of war, also cautioned that the military was undertaking weapon experiments that were creating negative consequences for American cities, people, land and crops, and admitted there was nothing he could do to stop it, despite being its progenitor.

Also admitted is the fact that the lessons learned in the 40s and 50s – though leading to a 13 year moratorium on hurricane seeding – were applied to Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia in the late 60s and early 70s under the later declassified Operation Popeye – which sought to alter the course of the Vietnam War by reducing, or impacting traffic along the Ho Chi Minh Trail via drastic increases in rainfall and harsh weather.

SO?! What is happening now, today, and in recent years? Of course, it is not admitted; the issue is deflected; critics are derided as conspiracy theorists, search engines and algorithms de-list, hide and suppress discussions of ‘chemtrails’ and ‘HAARP’ and ‘weather modification.’ However, experiments are taking place – likely covertly for military purposes – and admittedly under the guise of battling global warming/climate change.

How have we reached the point where few in the public are aware of the documented existence of this technology and the phenomenon of weather control? Why is rational or critical discussion of this issue ridiculed or even banned? What is the real agenda at work here?

. . . . AND MORE . . . .

This stuff is documented. In the video above, a great deal of information was found in newspaper archives, as well as internet postings. However, it is also dealt with in academic literature.

Please read (or browse through) the paper “The pathological history of weather and climate modification: three cycles of promise and hype” (PDF) by academic James Fleming, of MIT, for more discussion on a) early episodes of rainmaking and weather modification, b) the period involving cloud seeding by General Electric scientists Irving Langmuir, Vincent Schaefer, and Bernard Vonnegut, et al. and also c) the current wave of climate change modification that remains ongoing.








Never in the history of the World has anyone seen — and experienced — such a pervasive and ongoing chemical assault on the citizenry in broad daylight. Especially an assault that goes unseen and, therefore, unreported by the great majority of people who live under chemtrailed skies. These folks are by and large completely unaware that their skies are literally being saturated, sometimes 24/7, with chemtrail chemicals.
How is it that these chemicals being spewed by airliners, which are equipped to lay down such aerosolized chemical cocktails, go undetected by so many?

That is truly the $64,000 question?

And, there can be only one answer. The Federal Government has willfully engaged in a premeditated conspiracy to deceive the public. This conspiracy to both deceive and spray chemicals anywhere the government wishes has been going on for decades. Yet they continue to assert that the chemtrails which many of us have witnessed and experienced are actually contrails.

CHEMTRAILS: Covert Crimes Against Humanity

What follows are a few photos, which clearly show how the equipment which produces these aerosols, can start and stop the spraying process. Upon seeing these many chemtrails being laid down in real time, it is obvious to anyone who can see that they are in fact chemtrails … and positively not contrails. Contrails are the normal vapor trails which are left in the wake of a sky borne jet airliner. They appear at the very rear being ejected as the exhaust from the jet airliners, and dissipate quite quickly depending on the ambient atmospheric temperature, pressure and humidity at the time.

Photos of Chemtrails which cannot be Contrails

Hopefully you get the picture by now. If not, here’s a much more ‘exhaustive’ photo-documentary for your viewing:

CHEMTRAILS: A Planetary Catastrophe Created by Geoengineering (UPDATED)

These photos categorically portray the chemtrails being started and stopped at the will of the chemtrail aerosolization equipment operator. In other words, there is no room for debate here: Chemtrails are not contrails, and contrails are not chemtrails. The preceding photos ought to serve as irrefutable evidence for anyone who is confronted with the skepticism or disbelief from those who rarely look at the sky.
This Government-Run Chemtrail Conspiracy Has At Least Three Prongs

The first prong has been to knowingly disseminate false information about the multi-decade, government-coordinated, chemtrail program. Calling what are actually chemtrails contrails is a stratagem the government has used with great success for all of those decades. Except that now many are waking up to the truth and calling them on it whenever and wherever possible.

On those rare occasions where they trot out a willing dupe to purposefully misrepresent chemtrails as contrails, they often fall down on the job. Nevertheless, the government has so committed itself to this highly flawed strategy for so many years that they refuse to give it up. Their untenable approach is now beginning to work in the favor of those who are working to expose this relentless chemical assault against the populace.

The second prong of the government’s stratagem is to selectively spray uniquely formulated chemtrail aerosols in different areas, at different altitudes, during specific weather patterns, etc. For instance, we often see them heavily spray the skies one or two days before a predicted rainfall, thunderstorm, snowfall, hailstorm or any other type of precipitation event. This is without question the chemtrail program’s most predictable feature. When a major weather event is forecasted, the government’s chemtrail airliners are up there creating tic-tac-toe boards in the sky like at no other time.

This begs the following question:What on earth are they putting in those chemtrail brews that they are so deliberate to rain upon the masses?
After all, the heavy precipitation events particularly ensures that the many aerosolized chemicals end up on lakes and rivers, farmland and forests, homes and offices, roads and sidewalks, malls and shopping centers, cars and trucks, etc. Just in case the reader has any health concerns or medical conditions which might be caused, or exacerbated, by the toxic chemicals present in chemtrails, here is a real eye-opener:

CHEMTRAIL SYNDROME: A Global Pandemic Of Epic Proportions

The third prong of this ubiquitous and unrelenting government chemtrail conspiracy is weather modification.

All one has to do is closely watch the unpredictable and uncooperative weather of the great state of California to get an appreciation of how profoundly geo-engineering has altered the long-established climatological patterns there. The state has been besieged by what may be its worst drought in recorded history.

The US Federal Government has been deceiving the citizenry for many decades regarding the geo-engineering chemical assault known as chemtrails. Not only has the government continued down this road of deception, it has ramped up its many and varied initiatives to ensure that the chemtrail genie does not escape from the bottle. Once it does, they know that it cannot be put back into the bottle … and that there will be many unhappy people as a result.

For the untold millions who have been systematically sickened by the covert chemtrail program, they will have their day of revelation and justice. Those who directly participated in this chemical assault on the entire nation will likewise face the appropriate consequences. It is now only a matter of time that both this crime against humanity and the subsequent cover-up will be exposed.

May those who are responsible for this crime against humanity be forewarned! The people of the world don’t like having their sunny days taken from them. Neither do they like being sprayed from on high with toxic and dangerous chemicals.

Source of information taken from Geoengineering Watch with permission.

Hurricanes and 258

On the 23rd October 2015, Hurricane Patricia made land as a Category 5 Hurricane, please make note of the numbers involved here, 2,3,5,and 8. 2+3= 5 5+3=8. According to reports 258,000 people are going to need shelter. Let me just share some coincidences and research on Hurricanes.

Crime against humanity

Hurricanes are symbolic of Chanukah, in 258 BC, the Torah was translated into Greek, Chanukah happens on the 25th of the month, after 8 days they played games using a spinning top/the hurricane. 23rd day is Sabbath of blessing. Chanukah Monorah is an 8 day holiday that begins on the 25th, Chabad Lubavitch is an orthodox Jewish sect that has direct influence over 3,300 institutions in the US govt depts. They are a sacrificial cult that believe that in order to fulfil prophesy they must go back to sacrifices to rebuild the temple. Every hurricane has links to 258.

For instance Hurricane Gustav started on the 25th August, every change linked to 258, It started exactly three years to the day of Hurricane Katrina. I googled past Hurricanes and came up with this. Hurricane =H…. H Charley sharp turn at 258kph, H Andrew 258 kph, H Rita 258 drinking samples taken by EPA, Hurricane Sidr kills 258, H Stan kills 258, H Isabel winds of 258kph, Hurricane Mitch 258 dead in Guatemala, Hurricane Dean left 258 homeless, Hurricane Katrina 258 managers, 258 reported dead in first instance, Hurricanes were reported at 2am 5am 8am 11am 14.00 hrs 17.00 hrs and 23.00hrs.

Bare in mind that these are figures reported these episodes and not always the final figures. The Hurricane Patricia seems to have acted like no other Hurricane ever!  It went from a Tropical Storm to a Major Storm in record time, them took a break, then went from a Major Hurricane to a superstorm in record time, It is plausible that Hurricanes can grow into monsters quickly, but overnight from TS to Cat5 is rather suspicious.
A UK Climatologist stated that it shown the Hurricane weakens just past Mexico then as it goes in to Texas it joins with 2 other systems then strengthens.

In the Jewish religion, in 258 BC, Jews were not allowed to study the Torah, they used to hide in caves and when approached would pretend to play with spinning tops. The Chanukah is a victory celebration involving the overthrow of the Greeks , which involves Oil and 8 days. Hurricane Gustav was predicted to light the Oil on the Coast and last 8 days. The food eaten during this time are Doughnuts, (Hurricane shaped) and Oily food. Hurricane Gustav was reported at 2am-5am-8am-11am-14pm-17pm-23pm which is all pertaining to 2,5 and 8, is this just pure coincidence? What is strange is that fluctuations:

Hurricane Gustav started on 25th August=258 at 11am as a Tropical Depression (on Torah Day) and becomes a Tropical Storm at 2pm, at

Man Made Hurricanes
Man Made Hurricanes

5am it changes from a Storm to a Hurricane 1, two days later its a Storm again at 5am. On every link to the numbers 2,5 and 8, the Hurricane changes. Is this just coincidence? At 5am when it changes from Storm to Hurricane, is the exact time that candles are lit to celebrate the victory of Chanukah. Is it just coincidence that this celebration also involves oil and each Hurricane has an oil connection?

All the phone numbers for Relief donations have 258 in the middle no matter where they are.(Remember that it is the reporting during the events that is significant, not the final reports.) It was reported that 258 shelters opened in Texas. That the jobless figures due to Harvey, rose by 258 in Louisiana. Harvey began as a TD on August 23-(23=5 August=8).8 Refineries were reported to have closed. Harvey is the 8th named Storm and 71 fatalities were reported. The numbers of displaced was reported as 32,000 (5) with the largest shelter said to have a capacity of 8000. The Texas Governor stated that damages will be between 150 billion and 180 billion (258 once again comes into play) and Operation BBQ relief was reported to be expecting to give 25,000 to 30,000 meals a day. A curfew was created between 12am and 5am, can you see how these numbers all link to 2,5 and 8?

As usual, the Oil and Gas productions are affected, as Shale in Southern Texas claims that production of 300,00 to 500,000 barrels per day are, whilst Burlington Oil and Gas claims to have spilled 300,000 gallons in Dewitt County. Two Exon refineries reported to close while 14 (5) crude oil tankers delayed and 8 chemical plants failed. Still think its all just coincidence? AGC reported that construction expanded by 258 in Oklahoma. In the wake of Hurricane Harvey, Natural Gas production has been reported to have declined by…….25.71% …now how much more specific can they get?

The Army Corps of Engineers was reported to have released 258 Million Gallons of water from Lake Okeechobee. Hurricane Irma was reported to have been a Cat 4 with 258 Kilo per hour winds and Jose close behind with 258 Kilo pr winds. I have not even looked at the 258 connections to these as yet but you can guarantee there will be many. Or is it all just highly coincidental?

Research by Annie