Letter to the Editor – Brain Tumours: Rise in Glioblastoma Multiforme Incidence
Authors’ Comment on “Brain Tumours: Rise in Glioblastoma Multiforme Incidence in England 1995–2015 Suggests an Adverse Environmental or Lifestyle Factor”, Alasdair Philips, Denis L. Henshaw, Graham Lamburn, and Michael J. O’Carroll
Journal of Environmental and Public Health
Letter to the Editor (3 pages), Article ID 2170208, Volume 2018 (2018)
Published 25 June 2018
Citations to this Article
How to Cite this Article
Journal of Environmental and Public Health
Volume 2018, Article ID 7910754, 10 pages
Brain Tumours: Rise in Glioblastoma Multiforme Incidence in England 1995–2015 Suggests an Adverse Environmental or Lifestyle Factor
,1,2 Denis L. Henshaw,1,3 Graham Lamburn,2 and Michael J. O’Carroll4
1Children with Cancer UK, 51 Great Ormond Street, London, WC1N 3JQ, UK
2Powerwatch, Cambridgeshire, UK
3Professor Emeritus, University of Bristol, UK
4Professor Emeritus, Vice–Chancellor’s Office, University of Sunderland, UK
Correspondence should be addressed to Alasdair Philips; email@example.com
Received 19 December 2017; Revised 14 March 2018; Accepted 21 March 2018; Published 24 June 2018
Academic Editor: Evelyn O. Talbott
Copyright © 2018 Alasdair Philips et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Objective. To investigate detailed trends in malignant brain tumour incidence over a recent time period. Methods. UK Office of National Statistics (ONS) data covering 81,135 ICD10 C71 brain tumours diagnosed in England (1995–2015) were used to calculate incidence rates (ASR) per 100k person–years, age–standardised to the European Standard Population (ESP–2013). Results. We report a sustained and highly statistically significant ASR rise in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) across all ages. The ASR for GBM more than doubled from 2.4 to 5.0, with annual case numbers rising from 983 to 2531. Overall, this rise is mostly hidden in the overall data by a reduced incidence of lower-grade tumours. Conclusions. The rise is of importance for clinical resources and brain tumour aetiology. The rise cannot be fully accounted for by promotion of lower–grade tumours, random chance or improvement in diagnostic techniques as it affects specific areas of the brain and only one type of brain tumour. Despite the large variation in case numbers by age, the percentage rise is similar across the age groups, which suggests widespread environmental or lifestyle factors may be responsible. This article reports incidence data trends and does not provide additional evidence for the role of any particular risk factor.
The causes of brain tumours in adults remain largely unknown . In 2011, the World Health Organisation (WHO) prioritised the monitoring of detailed brain tumour incidence trends through population–based cancer registries . This article reports recent changes in malignant brain tumour incidence in England that include age, sex, morphology and tumour location.
2. Materials and Methods
The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD–O) is a dual classification, with coding systems for both topography and morphology . The relevant topology codes are listed in Table 1, along with the number of tumours diagnosed in 1995 and 2015.
Table 1: ONS WHO ICD10 brain tumour data for England.
There are 102 different ICD–O–3.1 morphology codes used in the data set, though many have few cases. The morphology code describes the cell type and its biological activity / tumour behaviour.
WHO last updated their classifications in 2016, but their changes have minimal impact on our analysis of the data [4, 5]. Malignant brain neoplasms without histology are recorded as ICD–10 D43 (D43.0 & D43.2 supratentorial).
We used anonymised individual–level national cancer registration case data from the UK Office of National Statistics (ONS) for all 81,135 ICD10–C71 category primary malignant brain tumours diagnosed in England for the years from 1995 to 2015, plus 8,008 ICD10–D43 supratentorial malignant tumours without histology/morphology data from 1998–2015. The initial data is supplied by the National Cancer Registration Service (NCRS). The ONS then apply further validation checks and the UK Department of Health use the ONS data to inform policy making. The ONS state their cancer data are generally within 2% of the correct values . Until about 2005, some cases in the oldest age–groups will not have been recorded in the cancer registries. Since 2005 this error is likely to be small.
Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM), the most common and most malignant primary tumour of the brain, is associated with one of the worst five–year survival rates among all human cancers, with an average survival from diagnosis of only about 1 year. This ensures that few cases will be unrecorded in the ONS database and we show that their number of GBM tumours is similar to NHS hospital inpatient numbers. The data include the year of diagnosis, age at diagnosis, sex of patient, primary site and morphology code. National population estimates of age and gender by calendar year were also obtained from ONS data  and age–specific incidence rates per 100,000 person–years and for a wide variety of tumour types were calculated in 5-year age group bins for males and females separately.
Some published incidence analyses have used different criteria as to which glioma and astrocytoma should be considered malignant. WHO considers Grades I to IV as biologically malignant even if they have not been graded histologically malignant. We have taken the WHO/IARC morphology behaviour codes /3, /6 and /9 as being histologically malignant which means that Grade I and II tumours are classed as low–grade malignancies.
We are not aware of any specific bias in the ONS data. There is a slight data–lag in cancer registry data, which are regularly checked and updated if necessary, but are generally stable after 3 to 5 years. Our ONS data extract is dated July 2017.
Brodbelt et al. (2015)  reported an analysis of treatment and survival for 10,743 GBM cases in England over the period 2007–2011, which had an overall median survival of only 6.1 months, rising to 14.9 months with maximal treatment. Brodbelt et.al.’s GBM case total from English hospital data is only 0.5% higher that our ONS GBM total of 10,687 cases for the same time period; this suggests that a very complete UK cancer diagnosis and registration system is now in place. In contrast, Ostrom et al. (2015)  reporting on USA SEER brain tumour data provide a scatter–plot that shows a median complete registration and histological confirmation level of only about 65%, with the best examples returning less than 75% full completion in 2012.
We had a large number of categories and sub–categories in the data. It was necessary to combine some of these to increase the resolving power. We ran analyses separately for each site (C71.0 to C71.9), for each main type of tumour, and for tumour grade (I to IV). It was immediately obvious that the most significant change was in the incidence of GBM in frontal and temporal lobes. The obvious potential confounders would be the C71.8 (overlapping) and C71.9 (unspecified) categories due to better imaging techniques and we discuss this later.
Incidence rates rise dramatically with age and standardisation is necessary as population age profiles are changing with time. We calculated age–standardised incidence rates (ASR) per 100k person–years to the current recommended European Standard Population (ESP–2013), as it best represents the reality of the case burden on society . Adjusting European cancer incidence to the World Standard Population is not helpful as the age-spectra are so different.
Table 2 lists the morphology codes with the highest case numbers, totalling 80354 tumours. Included in our analyses are an additional 781 cases in 78 other categories,
each with fewer than 100 cases over the 21 years. A full listing of all the cases in the data set is provided in the Supplementary File [S1].
Table 2: ICD-O-3 morphology codes with more than 100 cases between 1995-2015 inclusive. (A full listing of all the morphology codes and cases is present in the Supplementary file).
We needed to group data to improve resolution and reduce random data noise. We examined infant and child neoplasms separately, but did not find any statistically significant time–trends. Three age-groups seemed reasonable. We chose a child, teenage and young-adult group (0-29), a main middle-age group (30-54) and an older age group (over 55 years of age). These reasonably split the population into three roughly equal (20, 18 and 16 million) groups of people. The case totals in the three groups were about 9.5k, 19.5k and 52k respectively. We tested moving the cut-point boundaries by 5 years in both directions and it made little difference to the overall results.
The cases were analysed by morphology, topology, sex, age, age–specific and age–standardised incidence. The Annual Average Percentage Change (AAPC) and corresponding 95% CI and p–values were calculated using Stata SE12.1 (StataCorp). A linear model on the log of the age–standardised rates, which tests for a constant rate of change (), best fitted the data. See Supplementary File sections S2 and S3.
In a major 2013 review article, Hiroko Ohgaki and Paul Kleihues  wrote “Glioblastoma is the most frequent and malignant brain tumor. The vast majority of glioblastomas (~90%) develop rapidly de novo in elderly patients, without clinical or histologic evidence of a less malignant precursor lesion (primary glioblastomas). Secondary glioblastomas progress from low-grade diffuse astrocytoma or anaplastic astrocytoma. They manifest in younger patients, have a lesser degree of necrosis, are preferentially located in the frontal lobe, and carry a significantly better prognosis.”
Overall primary malignant brain tumour ASRs are only rising slowly and are often considered fairly static. Figure 1 shows the age–standardised trends from 1971 to 2015. From the 1970s to about 2000 there was a fairly steady rise in recorded overall incidence, however since then the rise has slowed, though clinicians have been reporting a rise in high-grade, aggressive tumours.
Figure 1: Age–standardised overall trends from 1971 to 2015 using data in ONS MB1 series, including a smaller number of supratentorial neoplasms without histology or morphology data coded D43.0 & D43.2. The data table for this figure is in the SI file as [S4].
Overall adult survival for all malignant brain tumours after diagnosis during 2006–2010 was about 35% for one year and 15% for five years, falling to about 3% for aggressive grades–III and IV tumours. ONS data show age-standardised death rates from malignant brain tumours (C71) have increased by 7% between 2001 and 2015, showing that improvements in treatment alone are inadequate and that there is a need to find ways of preventing brain cancer .
Comparing new case numbers in 2015 with 1995 shows an extra 1548 aggressive GBM tumour cases annually. Figure 2 and Table 3 show that up to about 2004 the
overall rise in GBM incidence (Annual Average Percentage Change (AAPC) 5.2%, 95% CI 3.7–6.6, p < 0·00003) could be mostly compensated for by the fall in incidence of all lower grade astrocytoma and “glioma, malignant, NOS, ICD10–93803”. This leaves a fairly steady rise in the GBM ASR from 2004 to 2015 (AAPC 2.2%, 95% CI 1.4–3.0, p < 0.0001).
Table 3: ICD10-C71 and (D43.0 + D43.2) cases and age-standardised (ESP-2013) incidence rates.
Figure 2: Age–standardised incidence rates for all C71 glioma cases diagnosed between 1995 and 2015 analysed by type and year (Data in Table 3). Grouping details: (1) = 94403–94433 (2) = 93843, 94003–94303 (3) = 93803 (4) = 93813, 93823, 93903–93943, 94503–94733.
Ohgaki and Kleihues  reported that most secondary GBMs are found in younger middle-age people and most primary GBMs are in over 60s. We tested our (30–54) and (>54) age group data, splitting the total GBM into de novo and promoted tumours. We estimated the maximum possible number of promoted tumours using the change in the grades II and III diffuse and anaplastic astrocytomas. The results are shown in Figures 3(a) and 3(b). These are discussed later.
Figure 3: Age–standardised rates for two age groups. The possible split between de novo and secondary promoted GBMs is based on incidence change of Grades II and III diffuse and anaplastic astrocytoma.
We found a large decrease of ASR over time for Grade–II diffuse astrocytoma, a slight rise in ASR for WHO Grade–III anaplastic astrocytoma (94013; 2832 cases). There was little change in rates of anaplastic oligodendroglioma (94513; 1339 cases), anaplastic ependymoma (93923; 313 cases) Grade–II oligodendroglioma (94503; 2671cases), embryonal, or ependymal tumours.
Figure 4 shows the relative increase in age-specific GBM incidence between the averaged periods (1995–1999) and (2011–2015) for 5–year age–groups. This 1.5-fold change is remarkably similar across the age–groups, suggesting a universal factor.
Figure 4: Relative change in GBM age–specific incidence rates (ASpR) averaged over two five-year periods 1995-1999 and 2011-2015 in 5-year age bands and gender.
Figure 5 shows ASR GBM rates for frontal lobe, temporal lobe, unspecified & overlapping (C71.8 & C71.9) and ‘all other brain regions’. Most of the rise is in the frontal and temporal lobes, and most of the cases are in people over 55 years of age, with a highly statistically significant overall AAPC of 7.6% (see Table 4). There was an extra rise in frontal and temporal GBM incidence between 2006 and 2008, which coincided with a slight reduction in the GBM ASR in overlapping and unspecified regions and may be due to improved imaging.
Table 4: Age standardised incidence rates to ESP-2013 (/100k people).
Figure 5: Frontal and temporal lobe GBM age–standardised incidence rates by tumour site and year (data table in the SI as [S6]).
Using sufficiently high–quality data, we present a clearer picture of the changing pattern in incidence of brain tumour types than any previously published. We report a sustained and highly statistically significant ASR rise in GBM across all ages and throughout the 21 years (1995–2015), which is of importance both for clinical resources and brain tumour aetiology.
Dobes et al. (2011)  reported a significant increase in malignant tumour incidence from 2000 to 2008 in the ≥65–year age group. In a second article they noted an increasing incidence of GBM (APC, 3.0; 95% CI, 0.5–5.6) in patients in the same age group, especially in temporal and frontal lobes . De Vocht et al. (2011)  reported a rise in temporal lobe tumour incidence in ONS data, but dismissed its significance. In a 2016 paper he claimed no increase in GBM incidence, but later published a major correction to the paper that shows an increase .
Zada et al. (2012)  using USA SEER data for 1992–2006 reported a rising trend in frontal and temporal lobe tumours, the majority of which were GBM, with a decreased incidence of tumours across all other anatomical sub–sites. Ho et al. (2014)  reported a 2.2–fold increase in glioblastoma incidence in the Netherlands over the period 1989–2010 (APC 3.1, p<0.001).
There were no material classification changes over the analysis period that might explain our findings , though multidisciplinary team working was strengthened (2005 onwards) and better imaging has resulted in improved diagnosis along with a more complete registration of brain tumours in the elderly. We analysed our data in 5-year age group categories to look for evidence of improved diagnosis; the data do suggest diagnosis and registration have improved in people aged over 70. However, at earlier ages the incidence rate of ‘all’ glioma (and all C71) registrations have remained almost constant, whereas the rates for lower–grade tumours fell until about 2006 and have since remained fairly static as the rate for GBM has risen steadily.
Most GBM cases seem to originate without any known genetic predisposition. GBMs from promoted lower–grade gliomas usually have different molecular genetic markers from de novo GBMs . The 2016 revision of the WHO classification of CNS tumours [3, 4] highlights the need for recording molecular genetic markers and divides glioblastomas into two main groups. The IDH–wildtype mostly corresponds to clinically defined primary or de novo glioblastoma and accounts for about 90% of cases. The remaining 10% are IDH–mutant cases, which usually arise in younger patients and mostly correspond to secondary or promoted lower–grade diffuse glioma [11, 21]. Figures 3(a) and 3(b) support the conclusion of Ohgaki and Kleihues  that promoted (secondary) tumours mainly occur in younger people and that de novo GBMs dominate in the over-54 age group. It is important that this pattern is monitored using modern genetic techniques.
GBM tumours are almost always fatal and are not likely to have been undiagnosed in the time-frame of our data. It is possible that some elderly cases were not fully classified, but then they should have been recorded as ICD10–D43. However, as D43 rates have remained very constant over this time period (see Figure 1), this is unlikely to have been a significant confounder.
4.1. Possible Causal Factors
We cite examples of some possible causal factors that have been discussed in the literature that could contribute changes in GBM incidence. In an important 2014 “state of science” review of glioma epidemiology, Ostrom et al.  list and discuss a number of potential factors that have been associated with glioma incidence, some of which we list below.
Ionising radiation, especially from X-rays used in CT scans, has the most supportive evidence as a causal factor. Due to the easy availability of CT imaging and relative
lack and higher cost of MRI imaging in UK NHS hospitals, CT scans are often used, especially for initial investigations. Their use over the period 1995-2013 is shown in the Supplementary File S6. Given the time-frame of the trend that we have identified, we suggest that CT imaging X-ray exposures should be further investigated for both the promotion and initiation of the rising incidence of GBM tumours that we have identified.
Preston et al. (2007)  concluded that radiation–associated cancer persists throughout life regardless of age at exposure and that glioma incidence shows a statistically significant dose response. Our oldest age group also experienced atmospheric atomic bomb testing fallout and some association with ingested and inhaled radionuclides should not be dismissed as a possible factor. England was in one of the highest exposed regions for atmospheric testing fallout as determined by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, UNSCEAR 2000 Report . Further information is given in Supplementary File S7. If only some of the population were susceptible and received a significant dose, any resulting extra cancers would show up in the ONS data.
The European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects by Andersen et al. (2017)  found suggestive evidence of an association between traffic-related air pollution and malignant brain tumours.
There is increasing evidence literature that many cancers including glioma have a metabolic driver due to mitochondrial dysfunction resulting in downstream genetic changes in the nucleus [26–28].
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) judged both power–frequency ELF (2002)  and radio–frequency RF (2011)  electromagnetic fields as Group 2B ‘possible human carcinogens’. Villeneuve et al. (2002)  concluded that occupational (ELF) magnetic field exposure increases the risk of GBM with an OR = 5.36 (95% CI: 1.2 – 24.8). Hardell and Carlberg (2015)  have reported an increase in high–grade glioma associated with mobile phone use. The multi-country Interphone study  collected data from 2000 to 2003 and included few people over 55 years of age and would have been unable to resolve any association involving older–aged people. Volkow et al. (2011)  found that, in healthy participants and compared with no exposure, a 50-minute cell phone exposure produced a statistically significant increase in brain glucose metabolism in the orbitofrontal cortex and temporal pole regions closest to the handset.
(1)We show a linear, large and highly statistically significant increase in primary GBM tumours over 21 years from 1995–2015, especially in frontal and temporal lobes of the brain. This has aetiological and resource implications.(2)Although most of the cases are in the group over 54 years of age, the age–standardised AAPC rise is strongly statistically significant in all our three main analysis age groups.(3)The rise in age–standardised incidence cannot be fully accounted for by improved diagnosis, as it affects specific areas of the brain and just one type of brain tumour that is generally fatal. We suggest that widespread environmental or lifestyle factors may be responsible, although these results do not provide additional evidence for the role of any particular risk factor.(4)Our results highlight an urgent need for funding more research into the initiation and promotion of GBM tumours. This should include the use of CT imaging for diagnosis and also modern lifestyle factors that may affect tumour metabolism.
The data were obtained from the UK Office for National Statistics (ONS), who are the legal owners of the data. Some data are publicly available in the ONS annual MB1 data series, which are freely downloadable from the ONS website, but this article uses the latest updated data, plus ICD–O–3 morphology codes, extracted under personal researcher contract from the ONS database in July 2017. ONS Data Guardian approval was required for the supply, control and use of the data. A nominal charge is made by the ONS for such data extraction. We are not permitted to supply the raw ONS extracted data to anyone else. Other researchers can obtain the latest data directly from the ONS in a similar manner. The authors provide some extra tables and figures in the Supplementary File downloadable from the journal website.
Conflicts of Interest
Alasdair Philips: Independent Engineer and Scientist. (a) Trustee of Children with Cancer UK (unpaid); (b) On a voluntary unpaid basis, has run Powerwatch for 25 years (a small UK NGO providing free information on possible health associations with EMF/RF exposure); (c) Technical Director and shareholder of EMFields Solutions Ltd., who design and sell EMF/RF measuring instruments and protective shielding items; (d) Shareholder of Sensory Perspective Ltd.; (e) Occasional voluntary advisor to the Radiation Research Trust (Registered Charity). Denis L. Henshaw: (a) Scientific Director of Children with Cancer UK (honorarium basis); (b) Shareholder of Track Analysis Systems Ltd., a company offering radon measurement services; (c) Voluntary scientific advisor for Electrosensitivity UK (Registered Charity). Michael J. O’Carroll: (a) Chairman of Rural England against Overhead Line Transmission group; (b) Occasional advisor to the Radiation Research Trust. Graham Lamburn: (a) Acts as voluntary unpaid ‘Technical Manager’ for Powerwatch.
Alasdair Philips and Graham Lamburn conceived the study and first–drafted most of the manuscript with significant input from Denis L. Henshaw and Michael J. O’Carroll. Graham Lamburn organised the data obtained from the UK ONS and wrote the database analysis scripts. All authors had full access to the results of all analyses and have provided strategic input over several years of following the ONS brain tumour data. All authors have approved the final manuscript. Alasdair Philips is the guarantor for the ONS data.
This research received no funding from any external agency or body. The ONS data extracts were paid for personally by Alasdair Philips. Administration costs were paid for personally by the authors.
We are very grateful to Professor Geoffrey Pilkington and Professor Annie Sasco for their invaluable comments on early drafts of this paper. We thank the ONS for providing the data and Michael Carlberg, MSc for advice regarding statistical analysis.
S1. Table of data morphology coding and the case numbers used in the study. S2. GBM case numbers and age-specific incidence rate data used in the study. S3. Sample STATA data and DO script. S4. Data table for Figure 1. S5. Data table for
Figure 5. S6. CT and MRI use in the UK NHS. S7. Some notes on atomic bomb testing and other nuclear fallout in England. (Supplementary Materials)
M. L. Bondy, M. E. Scheurer, B. Malmer et al., “Brain tumor epidemiology: Consensus from the Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium,” Cancer, vol. 113, no. 7, pp. 1953–1968, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
E. Van Deventer, E. Van Rongen, and R. Saunders, “WHO research agenda for radiofrequency fields,” Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 417–421, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
“IARC – International Classification of Diseases of Oncology – ICD-O-3,” http://codes.iarc.fr/abouticdo.php.
D. N. Louis, A. Perry, G. Reifenberger et al., “The 2016 World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System: a summary,” Acta Neuropathologica, vol. 131, no. 6, pp. 803–820, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
D. N. Louis, H. Ohgaki, O. D. Wiestler et al., “WHO Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System. 4th (rev),” in IARC, ISBN–10 9283244923, 2016. View at Google Scholar
UK Office for National Statistics, “Cancer Statistics: Registrations Series MB1,” 2017, https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/conditionsanddiseases/bulletins/cancerregistrationstatisticsengland/2015#data-quality.
UK Office for National Statistics, “Population Estimates for UK, England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland,” 2017, https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/populationandmigration/populationestimates.
A. Brodbelt, D. Greenberg, T. Winters, M. Williams, S. Vernon, and V. P. Collins, “Glioblastoma in England: 2007–2011,” European Journal of Cancer, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 533–542, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
Q. T. Ostrom, H. Gittleman, J. Fulop et al., “CBTRUS statistical report: primary brain and central nervous system tumors diagnosed in the united states in 2008-2012,” Neuro-Oncology, vol. 17, Supplement 4, pp. iv1–iv62, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
European Union, “European Standard Population,” http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/en/web/products-manuals-and-guidelines/-/KS-RA-13-028.
H. Ohgaki and P. Kleihues, “The definition of primary and secondary glioblastoma,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 764–772, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
UK Office for National Statistics, “<1971–1994 8290769_tcm77–395904.xls>,” downloaded from the ONS, 26th September, and for 1995–2013 data, Table 13 in https://www.ons.gov.uk/file?uri=/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/conditionsanddiseases/datasets/cancerregistrationstatisticscancerregistrationstatisticsengland/2015/cancerregistrations2015final22.05.2017.xls downloaded from the ONS, 10th July 2017.
M. Dobes, V. G. Khurana, and B. Shadbolt, “Increasing incidence of glioblastoma multiforme and meningioma, and decreasing incidence of Schwannoma (2000–2008): findings of a multicenter Australian study,” Surgical Neurology International, vol. 2, no. 176, pp. 1–7, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
M. Dobes, B. Shadbolt, V. G. Khurana et al., “A multicenter study of primary brain tumor incidence in Australia (2000-2008),” Neuro-Oncology, vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 783–790, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
F. De Vocht, “Inferring the 1985–2014 impact of mobile phone use on selected brain cancer subtypes using Bayesian structural time series and synthetic controls,” Environment International, vol. 97, pp. 100–107, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
F. De Vocht, “Corrigendum to “Inferring the 1985–2014 impact of mobile phone use on selected brain cancer subtypes using Bayesian structural time series and synthetic controls. [Environ. Int. (2016), 97, 100-107],” Environment International, vol. 101, pp. 201-202, 2017, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412017301241. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
G. Zada, A. E. Bond, Y.-P. Wang, S. L. Giannotta, and D. Deapen, “Incidence trends in the anatomic location of primary malignant brain tumors in the United States: 1992–2006,” World Neurosurgery, vol. 77, no. 3-4, pp. 518–524, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
V. K. Y. Ho, J. C. Reijneveld, R. H. Enting et al., “Changing incidence and improved survival of gliomas,” European Journal of Cancer, vol. 50, no. 13, pp. 2309–2318, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
Clinical Coding toolbox, “UK Health and Social Care Information Centre,” 2015, https://web.archive.org/web/20160723115526/http://systems.hscic.gov.uk:80/data/clinicalcoding/codingadvice/toolbox.
G. P. Dunn, M. L. Rinne, and J. Wykosky, “Emerging insights into the molecular and cellular basis of glioblastoma,” Genes & Development, vol. 26, pp. 756–784, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
H. Ohgaki and P. Kleihues, “Genetic alterations and signaling pathways in the evolution of gliomas,” Cancer Science, vol. 100, no. 12, pp. 2235–2241, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
Q. T. Ostrom, L. Bauchet, F. G. Davis et al., “The epidemiology of glioma in adults: A state of the science review,” Neuro-Oncology, vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 896–913, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
D. L. Preston, E. Ron, S. Tokuoka et al., “Solid cancer incidence in atomic bomb survivors:1958–1998,” Radiation Research, vol. 168, no. 1, pp. 1–64, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, UNSCEAR 2000 Report to the General Assembly, United Nations, New York, NY, USA, 2000.
Z. J. Andersen, M. Pedersen, G. Weinmayr et al., “Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of brain tumor: the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE),” Neuro-Oncology, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 420–432, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
T. N. Seyfried, “Cancer as a mitochondrial metabolic disease,” Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology, vol. 3, 43 pages, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
M. G. Abdelwahab, K. E. Fenton, M. C. Preul et al., “The ketogenic diet is an effective adjuvant to radiation therapy for the treatment of malignant glioma,” PLoS ONE, vol. 7, no. 5, Article ID e36197, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
T. N. Seyfried, R. E. Flores, A. M. Poff, and D. P. D’Agostino, “Cancer as a metabolic disease: implications for novel therapeutics,” Carcinogenesis, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 515–527, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
IARC, Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, Non–Ionizing Radiation, Part 1: Static and Extremely Low–Frequency (ELF) Electric and Magnetic Fields, vol. 80, 2002.
IARC, Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, NonIonizing Radiation, Part 2:
Agnew, K. C. Johnson et al., “Brain cancer and occupational exposure to magnetic fields among men: Results from a Canadian population-based case-control study,” International Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 210–217, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
L. Hardell and M. Carlberg, “Mobile phone and cordless phone use and the risk for glioma—analysis of pooled case-control studies in Sweden, 1997–2003 and 2007–2009,” Pathophysiology, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 1–13, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
C. Wild, IARC Report to the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) on the Interphone Study, WHO, IARC, Lyon, France, 03 October 2011.
N. D. Volkow, D. Tomasi, G.-J. Wang et al., “Effects of cell phone radiofrequency signal exposure on brain glucose metabolism,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 305, no. 8, pp. 808–813, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
What Can You Do? Inform yourself.
More than five decades of research by the world’s renowned and dedicated scientists and medics provide clear evidence of damage inflicted upon biological systems by electromagnetic fields. Do your own research using keywords.
The medical profession, schools, the media and other organisations are forced to follow government guidelines which claim ‘no harm’ in spite of the evidence. SAR ratings are a ploy to protect vested interests and have no clinical value. Consider the alarming rise in cancer and brain tumours which goes unquestioned with an apparent unwillingness to examine the wider causes. Why? Simply follow the money! For what reason is Cancer UK in denial over EMF pollution that cause cancer!
As the technology becomes more addictive, the public can be easily controlled, particularly through social media; for the young this level of control and compliance is becoming the norm. Things can be made safer only if the public demand it and resist the constant pressure to incorporate technology into every aspect of their lives. Do we need to stop and re-evaluate our relationship with this life threatening technology? The first step to improving your health and well- being is reducing your exposure to radiation. Try turning your mobile/ devices off to see how your life improves. Replace Wi-Fi and cordless phones with Ethernet cable and non- wireless routers. Withdraw your consent to SMART meters (link below). This is a democratic legal right and yes, one can refuse to have these meters installed.
Screening offers some protection, but be sceptical about EMF protection devices claiming to neutralise electromagnetic fields or harmonise the body. Also beware of scams using nonsensical pseudo-science in literature in order to trick sufferers of EMF pollution or other health issues into purchasing useless gadgets. In one third of cases the perceived short-term benefits are likely due to the well known placebo effect – or power of the mind.
More information. www.bemri.org Bio Electromagnetic Research Initiative –
Is Electromagnetic pollution making you ill?
More than five decades of research have linked electromagnetic pollution [EMP] to many health conditions. Microwaves, [RF] penetrate our body damaging cells and DNA. Electromagnetic frequencies [EMF’s] deplete immune systems and can bring about cancer, brain tumours and childhood leukaemia. More and more people experience sleeping difficulties, headaches, chronic fatigue, and other allergies. Additional symptoms include muscular complaints aches/weakness, irritability, nose bleeds, nausea, dizziness, flu like symptoms, tinnitus type noise, depression, sensitivity to chemical products, blurred vision, burning, itchy or tingly red skin, short-term memory loss, heart attacks, strokes, autoimmune diseases, and inability to concentrate. Behavioural problems in children are increasing and this technology is now recognised as an addiction.
Electromagnetic pollution continues rising above levels quite unimaginable, even twenty years ago. They follow a pattern linked to ever increasing cases of cancers, brain tumours, autism, childhood leukaemia and Alzheimer’s. The sudden rise among children aged below 15 years who suffer brain tumours is alarming news. The young have thinner sculls and tumours may take a while to grow.
Electromagnetic pollution affects all biological systems. Insects and some bird species numbers are declining and caused by a range of pollutants, electro and chemical. During experiments at Silwood Park Campus of Imperial Collage London, bees leaving a hive became disorientated after a DECT base station was placed about 1 metre from the hive and switched on for 5 minutes and when switched off, the bees returned to normal activity soon after. In Germany, a research team subjected bees to these signals over a longer period, found the hive abandoned and the bees never returned.
Electromagnetic Pollution within the Home [EMP]
Communities protest over the growing number of mobile base station antennas mounted close to residential properties and schools, but are seemingly unaware that a Wi-Fi router or cordless phone within their own home emit a high degree of radiation, most often far greater than those entering from external communication masts.
Wi-Fi also called Wireless LAN [wLan] Wi-Fi acts like a mobile phone mast pulsing microwaves 24/7 and not simply power levels from one device, but the cumulative radiation emitted from all units in the home, classroom or workplace. It includes transmissions from nearby cell phone masts, TETRA, Wi-Fi and radiation penetrating the building from neighbour’s devices.
IPAD’s, tablets, Wii and Xbox emits a high degree of radiation, is often placed on the lap dangerously close to the body. Babies and young children mostly at risk from any form of pollution, especially electro-pollution! Children have little choice, adults make it. The choice of wireless over Ethernet suggests everyone is affected.
Schools ban Wi-Fi The French Government and other countries have banned mobile phones in some schools and public buildings. Russia consistently set better safety standards over many years and are most concerned about EMF pollution. Some UK schools have outlawed phones, and prudently should now prohibit WI-FI.
Digital Enhanced Cordless Phone. [DECT] These produce powerful microwave radiation from their base units, 24/7, even when not being used. DECT signals can travel into adjacent buildings and gardens and often physically detected by those sensitive to this damaging radiation. Even if one is unable to feel it, our body is cumulatively responding to this radiation the same as one can have cancerous cells or other defects in the body without being immediately aware.
Wireless baby monitors. Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications is the standard used for many baby monitors and can emit radio frequency fields of 6 volts/per metre. [Twice as strong as found 100 metres away from a mobile phone mast] For comparison, the maximum recommended 2002 Salzburg indoor level for GSM is just 0.02 volts per metre. Baby monitors are not safe when placed 1 metre from the child as some suppliers claim. Digital technology, due to its ‘pulsed’ nature becomes more harmful at lower levels of power than the older analogue technology.
Energy-saving CFL bulbs & fluorescent tubes. The EU ban on incandescent lamps may leave hundreds of thousands of vulnerable sick and disabled people in the UK unable to safely use electric light in their homes. Light sensitivity can arise from a range of health conditions, including the genetic disorder Xeroderma Pigmentosum (XP), the auto-immune disease lupus, forms of eczema and dermatitis, photosensitivity, ME, electro-sensitivity and many more. Some common symptoms are severe stinging, burning and itching of the skin, along with red rash. CFLs each contain mercury and when broken present a health hazard. Vast numbers will be dumped on landfill sites risking contamination of future water supplies.
Multiple Chemical Sensitivity is on the increase and some victims are also electrosensitive. [All biological systems are electro–chemical]. Sufferers may experience excruciating pain and sleep deprivation and unable to escape to a safe haven or have to endure family and friends failing to understand their condition and often believe the GP’s regular diagnosis, “It’s all in the mind’ who perhaps decide to pass the patient on to a psychiatrist. Neither receives training along these lines of investigation and drugs are the last thing sufferers need. Suicides are on the increase for these reasons.
Wireless Smart Meters. The plan is to replace electric and gas meters in all homes and business in the UK with smart meters under pretext they save energy and money. Costs in the USA and Australia increased after meters were installed, and people soon reported having headaches, insomnia, nausea, and dizziness, glaucoma, and heart palpitations.
As with other EMF sources, transmissions from wireless smart meters operating 24/7 can cause serious health issues. Apparently, the UK role out is estimated to cost over £12 billion and the consumer, as always, picks up the tab. Smart Meters are not compulsory  and those already fitted will need replacing probably around 2020. Smart Meters also invade our privacy and are easily switched off remotely by the utility, hacked, [as with computers] or via other wirelessly linked devices. A route ripe for terrorists and hackers with little way to protect ourselves.
Courtesy of BEMRI – New-Awareness-1
During a court case in 1998, Dr McKinley, a senior scientist with the National Radiological Protection Board, explained that their data on tissue conductivity had been supplied to them by Microwave Consultants Ltd, which is on the payroll of a cell phone company. It transpired that virtually none of the NRPB documents is peer reviewed and that Dr McKinley himself had not authored any experimental studies; in fact he admitted he had no expertise in biology.
The industry also tries to control the science by controlling the interpretation of findings and how they are presented – if they ever are – to the general public. Many corporations have their own “team” who travel to all meetings, and whose job it is to create negative “spin” on presentations that point to possible harm or suggest caution.
Not only are the science labs, government offices and science interest groups associated with cell-phone science becoming puppets of the phone industry, but the media are so heavily influenced by the phone companies that it is becoming increasingly difficult to disseminate impartial information and comments, even though they may be of long term benefit to the industry, and are vital for public health.
The auction of 3G licences to the mobile phone companies brought in £22.5 billion plus an annual income then of around 15 billion to the UK exchequer. These figures will be dwarfed by the sale of 4G and 5G licences. No wonder when commercial interests are at stake there seem to be outright denial of relevant, honest scientific data.
SAFETY LEVELS: When it comes to asking about safety, concerning any communication device or installation not one single independent consultant is able to give an answer. If anyone asks whether a certain level of electromagnetic pollution is safe they are usually quoted a UK safety limit laid down by the NRPB/HPA/PHE. In fact evidence from many medical and scientific bodies shows that no one can be sure there is a safe level. Countless studies have clearly demonstrated that biological systems can be impaired even by extremely low levels of radiation.
Electromagnetic radiation power density increases weekly as more people use electronic equipment. We are bombarded with an accumulation of radiation from satellites, power supplies, radar, broadcast antennas, – in fact all electrical systems and appliances. More people are becoming electro-sensitive and most are unaware of what is really attacking their body. Doctors are generally in the dark about the effects of EMF pollution, partly because they follow government guidelines and receive no training on these issues although the BMC must be aware of the problem as it was discussed in the UK medical journal.
At the moment there really is no cure for the problem apart from avoidance, though there is the opportunity to develop systems that can be of true benefit to us all in terms of health and performance if the electronics and telecommunications industries could be persuaded to listen, unfortunately money rules!
You pick up the mobile/cordless phone once, twice, ten times a day – or only a few times a month. But, each and every time, you’re gambling that this time’ won’t be the occasion when the radiation causes irreparable damage to your brain. It only takes a seemingly small damage trauma at a very small location to result in tissue damage, DNA damage, or chromosome mutations. Adults and children need to overcome the addiction now ruling ones lives and damaging health.
A report in May 2002 New Scientist informed us of a development of a weapon using intense electromagnet fields producing effects “ranging from disruption of short-term memory to total loss of control of voluntary bodily functions”. We already have this kind of weapon in the mobile phone and other wireless devices.
SCIENCE – Scientists have discovered that microwave radiation from mobile phone transmissions affect the brain in a process known as heat shock – an effect similar to heating the brain but with no actual rise in temperature. Heat shock causes the body to release proteins, which can damage or kill brain cells. Geneticist Dr David De Pomerai told how tests showed exposure for an hour to mobile phone radiation can double the heat shock proteins in cells. Dr Alan Preece of Bristol University revealed the same radiation caused vessels to dilate, thus creating a rush of blood to the head. Other studies have found that microwaves also weaken the blood brain barrier, which protects the brain against blood stream infections. Other research shows that they have specific effects on brain cells and brain function that can lead to brain degenerative diseases, cancer and weakening of the immune system.
It has been found that many lymphocytic leukaemia sufferers live close to power lines, underground mains cables and transformers, or spend long periods of time close to equipment that emits this kind of radiation. Myeloid cancer cases appear to be clustered around radio and TV masts. Such findings suggest that 50 Hz and RF frequencies [which include mobile phone frequencies] may affect living systems in various ways. The power levels from mobile signals are also known to increase after rain has fallen and during periods of low cloud. Some who suffer tinnitus and live close to mobile phone masts have found their condition is noticeably worst during this kind of weather.
Health risks arise from digital cordless [DECT] telephones. The base unit that cradles the handset and functions as transmitter and receiver produces an electrical field that is actually greater than that of a mobile phone. Since it radiates even when the phone is not being used, it is like using a mobile phone non-stop. These phones should never be put in bedrooms or close to where people sit. Better still dump them, along with baby alarms, which also emit dangerous EMF radiation. As the very young are more vulnerable, cots and beds should always be placed well away from electrical wiring and appliances, and from metal objects such as radiators, which act like antennas for microwave and other radiation.
Other high-risk devices that emit microwave radiation include WiFi, WLan, WIMAX, wireless interactive whiteboards, and burglar alarms using microwave detectors. Operating WLan systems in schools is equivalent to having a mobile phone mast permanently emitting life-threatening pulsed microwaves within the classroom.
Tests carried out the NRPB [National Radiological Protection Board – afterwards called Health Protection Agency [HPA] and now renamed Public Health England [Note the word protection is removed] revealed that ultraviolet beams from projectors used with electronic whiteboards in most schools could damage the eyes. The viewers peripheral retina can be over-exposed even when they are not looking directly at the projector’s apparent light source, or damaged if they look into the beam from a few yards away just for twenty seconds. Other radiation effects noted in schools include short- term memory loss, headaches, nosebleeds, hyperactivity, and lack of concentration.
Suspicion that electrical fields cause respiratory illness dates back to the 1950s, when it was found that placing asthmatics in areas with low electrical fields got rid of their symptoms. A new study by scientists at Imperial Collage London suggests that electrical fields from computers, televisions and other everyday items make people more prone to asthma, influenza and other respiratory diseases.
This research provides additional academic backing for campaigner’ s demands for precautionary measures to be taken against the thickening electro-smog we are exposed to from sources such as mobile phones and their masts, WiFi systems and household electrical devices. As the amount of electro-smog has multiplied many times over in recent years, science has increasingly shown it can cause a wide range of ailments, from respiratory diseases to difficulties in concentrating, from sleeplessness to cancer including many more illnesses.
Scientists have found that the electrical fields given off by a wide variety of household items, including computers, televisions, cookers, energy saving lamps and wiring, can charge minuscule particles in the air such as viruses, bacteria, allergens and highly toxic pollutants. Because many of these are so tiny – less than 80 times the thickness of the human hair – they often remain airborne almost indefinitely and so are can be readily inhaled. If they carry increased electrical charge they are more likely to stick to the tissue of the lungs and respiratory tract and to human skin, thereby increasing risk of infection and impact on the body.
The higher the electrical field and particle charge, the greater the danger, as particles with greater charge can hit the tissue with greater speed. As they crash land they become deformed, which makes them more firmly stuck and harder to remove.
Electrostatic charges, such as those given off by clothing and sheets made from synthetic materials, add to the problem. Research has also shown that high electrical fields greatly reduce concentrations of charged molecular oxygen, which is readily absorbed by the body, enhances biological functions and can kill harmful microbes.
TETRA [Terrestrial Trunk Radio Systems] is a microwave frequency now used by our police force and other bodies throughout the UK. The frequency of 17.6 Hz emits pulses occurring 17.6 times per second that match brain frequencies, and it is believed that this can penetrate deep into the brain, damaging cell communication. An article in the Daily Telegraph disclosed that six people at a police station at North Walsham, Norfolk, including a Chief Inspector, other officers and civilian workers, blamed their health problems on a TETRA communications system.
Chief Inspector Strong and his staff believe that bouts of dizziness and severe headaches began when a new TETRA transmitter was installed. About 25 other people living nearby also complained of similar symptoms and others of repeated nosebleeds, especially among children, along with disturbed sleep and skin problems. The officers, who had been referred to the Force’s doctor, were warned not to discuss this publicly and are apparently forbidden to speak out. One month previously the family of a police motorcyclist, who had died of cancer of the oesophagus, said he had complained of headaches when he began to use his TETRA handset, and was convinced it was to blame for his condition.
POLICY – The cell-phone industry controls the policy arm of the cell-phone science by being a major contributor of research funds, and by making sure that its personnel are placed on safety standard committees and even the World Health Organisation’s EMF study projects. Thus, all the relevant policy bodies are led by cell-phone personnel and consultants, or have a majority of them on their staffs. This is even true of scientific organisations. The Bio-electromagnetic Society [BEMS] which should be made up of independent scientists has a large contingent of members who work for the cell phone companies or are paid consultants.
In the UK the HPA is funded roughly half from the industries it represents and half from the Government, thus all of its associates have a financial interest in recommending the product, even if it may prove to be unsafe. Every single spokesperson on safety issues is linked in one way or another with the communications industry.
BAD SCIENCE – To avoid liability and promote public favour, all corporations can utilise “bad science” under the guise of objective and reliable science in order to convince public and courts in toxic lawsuits claiming their scientific “research” is reliable and do not endanger public health. In doing so, they avoid paying compensation, decrease liability and increase profits. Science is for hire with express purpose of reaching a “conclusion” and supporting an industry or corporate regulatory or litigation objective. Law and PR firms are set up for the sole purpose of contacting scientists to generate false data, challenge regulations or create spin that supports industry and organisations faced with liability suits. The bulk of scientists are employed by or receive payment from industry and governments.
Courtesy of BEMRI New Awareness 1
Does Public Health England speak for the best interests of the public?
The simple answer is no and one look at the history of this executive body is proof of that, yet, we are asked to accept that they have the populations health in their hands when it comes to 5G and the dangerous effects of Electromagnetic fields and Radio frequencies.
PHE was created as an “operationally autonomous executive agency” of the Department of Health on 1 April 2013, when responsibility for public health passed to local authorities. Its function is to “protect and improve the nation’s health and wellbeing, and reduce health inequalities” by providing government, local government, the NHS, public health professionals, and the public with “evidence-based professional, scientific and delivery expertise and advice
In 2012,the Health and Social Care Act was granted Royal assent and passed into law.
On April 1 2013, the Health and Social Care Act came into force, and the NHS in England underwent the most radical transformation in its history. Public Health England was created on the 1st April 2013.
Under the old system the purse strings of the huge NHS budget were held by 152 bodies known as primary care trusts (PCTs), who commissioned services from hospitals and other providers from within the NHS. These PCTs have now been abolished, and are succeeded by 211 clinical commissioning groups (CCGs). These CCGs, which are run as boards, will have responsibility for planning and designing health care within their region, including whether to commission services from within the NHS or from commercial providers. And it is this increased role for competition in the NHS that has sparked the most widespread and vocal opposition.
Opening services up to competition with the private sector.
Forcing a new commissioning structure that will eventually result in the complete privatisation of most NHS services. which helped;
This was a radical overhaul of who decides what health services to buy, or commission, using the NHS budget and, crucially, who they commission those services from.
The British Medical Journal found that more than a third of GPs with decision-making powers on CCG boards have financial interests in private care providers who could potentially be commissioned by their CCG.https://www.bmj.com/content/346/bmj.f2043
The reforms have engendered so much opposition that they have spawned a new political party: the National Health Action Party. Co-led by former doctor and independent Member of Parliament Richard Taylor and clinical oncologist Clive Peedell, the party aims not only to repeal the current government’s policies, but also to roll back over two decades of government policy that it says has been too in thrall to neoliberal, market-centric ideology.
Duncan Selbie is the Chief Executive of Public Health England,earning £220,000. Prior to this he was Director General for programmes and performance for the Dept of Health.
In PHE, over 199 people were paid more than £100,000, with 41 further part time employees earning such enormous salaries on a pro rata basis.https://d3n8a8pro7vhmx.cloudfront.net/taxpayersalliance/pages/6648/attachments/original/1470150096/The_Nanny_State_Rich_List.pdf?1470150096
PHE has been embroiled in a series of controversies about the quality and credibility of advice it has issued on topics including fracking, NHS health checks, and the NHS Diabetes Prevention Programme, raising concerns about both its competence and its supposed independence . It has recently been in the firing line again, accused of bowing to political pressure by initially agreeing not to publish its review of measures to reduce sugar consumption.
So they created a sugar tax.
The health benefits of the sugar tax will be miniscule (estimates suggest fewer than five calories per person per day), however, it will take £520 million from taxpayers’ pockets And, of course, it will hit those on low incomes the hardest.
Besides, slapping new taxes on businesses has the knock on effect of harming employment prospects: the sugar tax could lead to over 5500 fewer jobs.
Last year £901 million of the cash earmarked for front-line services was used to buy care from private and other non-NHS providers, according to the Financial Times.
Research by the Health Foundation showed £800 million was spent on purchasing the same kind of care from NHS trusts.
PHE claim to have strict processes for managing patient data yet in January 2018,Public Health England (PHE) has come under fire after handing over data on nearly 180,000 lung cancer patients to a firm affiliated with tobacco companies.
The information was sent to US consulting firm William E Wecker Associates after it issued a Freedom of Information (FOI) request to PHE.https://www.digitalhealth.net/2018/01/public-health-england-cancer-patient-data/
To the astonishment of MPs and environmental groups alike, Public Health England’s priority on its formation was not to tackle one of the big bêtes noires of public health but to weigh-in on the debate over the government’s plans to encourage large scale extraction, or fracking, of shale oil and gas in the UK.
In 2013, PHE drafted a Press release claiming that Fracking was NOT a public health risk despite evidence to the contrary. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/shale-gas-extraction-emissions-are-a-low-risk-to-public-health
This article shows how PHE whitewashed the potential health risks. http://www.fraw.org.uk/mei/musings/2014/20140506-phe_shale_gas-ecologist.html
PHE also bullied GP,s and care homes to continue using Tamiflu last year, even though it had been downgraded. http://www.pulsetoday.co.uk/clinical/prescribing/health-chiefs-ignore-gpc-demands-over-tamiflu-in-care-homes/20033763.article
In 2016 PHE issued papers stating that Fluoride in water was safe and beneficial,https://publichealthmatters.blog.gov.uk/2016/04/13/water-fluoridation-what-it-is-and-how-it-helps-dental-health/
Many other countries have either banned it or have claimed that it should be stopped. http://www.fluoridation.com/c-country.htm
PHE can only succeed if it is clear beyond doubt that its public statements and policy positions are not influenced by Government policy or political considerations. That does NOT appear to be the case as evidence received by MPs found that staff working at PHE felt they did not have freedom to contradict Government policy. This is a report from 2014, it seems little has changed. https://www.belfasttelegraph.co.uk/news/uk/concern-over-phes-lack-of-voice-30042160.html
The following report is from SSITA on the Public Health England claims that Wi-Fi in schools is safe.
There is no consistent evidence to date that exposure to RF signals from Wi-Fi and WLANs adversely affect the health of the general population.
Two studies found changes in human electrical brain activity as a result of exposure to Wi-Fi/2.4GHz signals and two found abnormal human heart rates in some people. These studies, backed up by many more carried out on mobile phones and other radiofrequency (RF) signals, are enough to raise serious concerns about the safety of Wi-Fi for use in schools.
“The precautionary principle applies where scientific evidence is insufficient, inconclusive or uncertain andpreliminary scientific evaluation indicates that there are reasonable grounds for concern that the potentially dangerous effects on the environment, human, animal or plant health may be inconsistent with the high level of protection chosen.”
“Let me be very clear. The Industry has NOT said once, ONCE, that cell phones are safe”.
It is apparent that PHE actions and reports are not based on facts, which in turn undermine the credibility of Public Health England. All its members should be thoroughly scrutinised for conflicts of Interest and no importance should be placed on its statements, having been shown to ignore crucial investigations and research in favour of toeing the political line of Government, it is clear that they are indeed a cause of Public ill health in many instances.This is especially true of new technologies.
Small cell towers have appeared on the busy high street in my town, they are approx 100 metres apart and number about 10.
I have written this freedom of information (FoI) request to the council and the highways dept for Info on them, should anyone see towers popping up, I suggest you do the same. It is your neighbourhood after all!
Under the FOI Act, I would like to find out the following information.
Re-The cell towers on Queens Road in Hastings.
Are these cell towers experimental ?
What is their purpose?
What is their link to 5G testing?
Were the public informed of the implementation?
If so, when?
Are they connected to a central management system?
Do they have a wireless data connection?
Do they have a wireless remote control?
Do they have sensors that enable smart city connectivity?
If they do not have smart city applications capabilities, are there plans to create them in the future?
Given that cell towers have a wireless link to the base station which can be up to 6 miles away and can capacitate 5000 cells towers, where is the base station for the area?
Who was given the contract?
If testing has already begun, when was this? if not, when will it be forthcoming?
Has there been any studies on the impact of public health of these towers?
Can you provide me with Information that shows when these cell towers Infrastructure were agreed upon and by whom.
A letter written by Ingrid Dickinson, a member of Bemri.
On 14 Jun 2018, at 10:55, Ingrid Dickenson wrote:
I think we should `all’ be aware of what’s coming for Londoners! I have participated in the Mayor’s consultation process and raised the subject of 5G as a health hazard but the aggressive stance of the 5G/AI industry coupled with the Mayor’s complete ignorance of the health consequences and eagerness to make London the `test bed’ has triumphed. The health effects of the 5G/AI roll-out have not been considered which means that the Mayor’s consultation process is based on incomplete and missing evidence, thereby `informed’ decision making was impossible.
Just listen again to Tom Wheeler’s aggressive stance on and his complete dismissal of `waiting’ for standards and testing . It seems that the Mayor and the UK government agree with him: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P5AYRWvjiVg
It really is alarming how we are being railroaded into a future which leaves us powerless, controlled and soon unable to breathe. Forget Climate Change ! 5G with its 60GHz backhaul signal will directly affect the Oxygen molecules in our air and the body’s ability to produce Vit D. It will have a devastating effect on Nature and all wildlife and soon we will experience the `Silent Spring’!
THERE HAS BEEN NO PRIOR TESTING regarding these effects, now also highlighted by wildlife experts ! Isn’t it the public’s right to demand proper testing `before’ such a massive roll-out of the AI/5G system begins ? Are the 180 International Scientists and experts in the field of health who signed the appeal for prior testing not worth listening too? WHERE ARE OUR ENVIRONMENTAL GROUPS and what are `their Experts’ doing other than follow whatever government/industry demands ? Is there no concern amongst them ?
The Mayor makes it very clear inhttps://www.london.gov.uk/what-we-do/business-and-economy/supporting-londons-sectors/smart-london/smarter-london-together
We see London’s future as a global test-bed city for innovation where the best ideas – eg from the AI sector – are developed here with the highest standards for privacy and security, and spread around the world.
This sentence alone is totally misleading! I refer to the recent `Panorama’ program where Fiona Philips demonstrated how the `smart’ system can easily be hacked. Where baby alarms and security cameras can be watched `remotely’ by unknown third parties. Children can be watched in their beds as well as couples in their homes. It was demonstrated that `someone’ in Poland watched an elderly couple through their `security’ camera in their home for FIVE hours. So much for privacy and security !
Has `Public Health England’ conducted `any’ trials re the safety of the smart system when we already know about the health effects of smart meters from International `Health Experts’, disregarded by PHE? Given PHE’s stance on Wi-Fi in school there is little hope that PHE is in any position to conduct proper safety trials before the Mayor unleashes his Frequency Armageddon on all Londoners.
Are we all going to stand by or are we going to speak up and demand prior testing? Those of us who have children/grandchildren owe it to them to speak up!
Bio-Electromagnetic Research Initiative
Using fiber-optic sensors, the smart concrete slabs are capable of gathering information about the environment, as well as ongoing activities taking place on the surface.
Colorado Department of Transportation (CDOT), has partnered with Integrated Roadways to test such revolutionary systems.
The CDOT recently awarded the startup with a $2.75 million contract to develop and test smart pavements in the state. The five-year project includes the following companies: Kiewit Infrastructure Co., Cisco Systems, WSP Global and Wichita Concrete Pipe.
Audi of America has announced the expansion of its Traffic Light Information (TLI) to two more cities—Phoenix, Arizona and areas of Kansas City, Kansas. With the addition of the two cities, more than 2,250 intersections across U.S. can communicate with Audi vehicles.
Many drivers have experienced the frustration of waiting at an intersection for the traffic light to turn green and when it finally does, the car in front of you remains stopped because the driver is checking their cell phone or fumbling with the car’s infotainment system. With so many distracted drivers on the road today, this happens all too frequently. Audi is working to address this problem.
Audi of America has announced the expansion of its Traffic Light Information (TLI) to two more cities—Phoenix, Arizona and areas of Kansas City, Kansas. With the addition of the two cities, more than 2,250 intersections across U.S. can communicate with Audi vehicles. The technology is known as Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I).
The pilot was first launched in 2016. Audi, in collaboration with Traffic Technology Services, first debuted its Traffic Light Information system in Las Vegas. With the addition of Phoenix and Kansas City, 10 major U.S. cities now use the service.
Enabled cities include: Dallas and Houston, Palo Alto and Arcadia, California; Portland, Oregon and Denver, Las Vegas and Washington, D.C.
“Audi continues to be an industry leader in connectivity and mobility solutions,” said Scott Keogh, president, Audi of America. “Not only do V2I technologies like Traffic Light Information help to reduce driver stress, they are also essential infrastructure developments as we continue toward an automated future.”
Traffic Light Information is a Audi connect PRIME feature available on select 2017 and 2018 models, enables the car to communicate with the infrastructure in certain cities and metropolitan areas across the U.S.
How it Works
When a TLI equipped Audi models approaches a connected traffic light, it receives real-time signal information from the traffic management system that monitors traffic lights via an on-board 4G LTE data connection. When the light is red, the TLI feature will display the time remaining until the signal changes to green in the instrument cluster in front of the driver or in the head-up display (if equipped). This “time-to-green” information helps reduce anxiety by letting the driver know approximately how much time remains before the light changes.
For future iterations of V2I technology, Audi’s TLI could include integration within the vehicle’s start/stop function, Green Light Optimized Speed Advisory (GLOSA), optimized navigation routing, and other predictive services. All of these services are designed to help reduce congestion and enhance mobility on crowded roadways.
In addition to Audi’s technology, in the future, smart traffic signals can reduce traffic woes in cities. By using AI and information from connected or autonomous cars to detect where there is a heavy concentration of vehicles, traffic signals can alter their pattern to ease congestion—making traffic flow in cities much more efficient.