According to a report in ‘ UKNew Tech News’ in 2016, smart meter technology is necessary for smart cities to evolve. This was reported by Claire Maugham who is director of policy and communications at Smart Energy GB, the body responsible for communicating to the public about the smart meter rollout across Great Britain. https://www.uktech.news/tech-city-voices/smart-cities-will-need-smart-energy-20160615
This has also been stated in a Government report in 2012 for the Department of Energy and Climate, entitled ‘ Smart Metering Implementation Programme.’ https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/68973/7348-first-ann-prog-rpt-rollout-smart-meters.pdf
In section 1.8 It states, ‘Smart meters in homes and businesses will sit at the interface between energy supply and demand, helping to modernise the energy industry. Smart meters are a critical part of the platform for the development of a smart grid and demand-side measures.’
So we can see how Important it is for Govt and Industry to implement Smart meters as a necessity to implement the Smart grid/city roll out.
The benefits of Smart meters are being addressed in the above document as:
1.9 Taking into account the quantifiable costs and benefits to Great Britain from the roll-out of smart metering, a dual fuel household could on average see bill savings of £25 per annum by 2020, rising to £40 by 2030. For small and non-domestic sites, bill savings are expected to be approximately £190 per annum by 2020, rising to over £200 by 2030.
Smart meters will for the first time put consumers in control of their energy use, helping them to adopt energy efficiency measures that can help save money.
There are already Energy Monitoring devices that can be purchased, some for as little as £25 which can be attached to wiring to monitor your energy use.
Smart meters will provide accurate energy consumption information bringing an end to estimated billing.
£20 Billion costs to end estimated bills?
The roll-out of smart meters will play an important role in Britain’s transition to a low-carbon economy and help us meet some of the long-term challenges we face in ensuring an affordable, secure and sustainable energy supply.
According to researchers,the communications industry could use 20% of all the world’s electricity by 2025, hampering attempts to meet climate change targets and straining grids as demand by power-hungry server farms storing digital data from billions of smartphones, tablets and internet-connected devices grows exponentially.https://www.researchgate.net/publication/320225452_Total_Consumer_Power_Consumption_Forecast
The Smart Grid and Smart Cities that they are so eager to roll out will require massive amounts of data centres which will drain the energy supply. https://data-economy.com/data-centres-world-will-consume-1-5-earths-power-2025/
Britain’s foremost data centre expert and a visiting professor at the University of Leeds, says the amount of energy used by data centres is doubling every four years – despite the innovations in hardware that massively increase their capacity to store data. As a result, analysts forecast that data centres will consume roughly treble the amount of electricity in the next decade.https://www.independent.co.uk/environment/global-warming-data-centres-to-consume-three-times-as-much-energy-in-next-decade-experts-warn-a6830086.html
Smart meters will facilitate the Smart Grid, which in turn will involve massive amounts of electricity, so far from helping to sustain the energy supply, it will be helping to drain it in the near future. What will be the consequences of a limited energy supply? Electricity Quotas, so in pushing for the roll out of Smart meters, to enable a Smart City/grid,the Govt and Industry will be adding to the draining of our energy.
Having Smart meters will allow them to remotely cut off anyone who has fulfilled their quota or even switch of whole neighbourhoods who have fulfilled their area quotas. Hmm… this is not looking like such a good idea after all, is it?
1.7 For energy suppliers, access to more accurate data, accompanied by improved industry-wide data management systems, will release efficiency savings that should flow through to consumers who will receive a better service at reduced cost.
Hardly a better service If we have to endure Electricity black outs and Quotas!
So far, we have seen that they will not save money as they will pass on the vast costs to the consumer, when enough people have them installed, obviously! Let us be honest, they are not going to hit the public with higher prices in the midst of trying to roll out this scam, now are they!?
They do not save energy at all, they facilitate the draining of the energy supply in the future, with massive amounts of energy needed to operate data centres, creating possible energy blackouts and quotas.
And they are not required to allow us to keep a check on our consumption as there are already devices on the market that are cheap and can fulfil that task.
What about Health Risks?
6.10 Smart meters use radio waves to allow remote readings to be taken from gas and electricity meters. Radio waves are very common in the environment and are used in radio and television broadcasts, wireless computer networks, pagers, radar, cordless and mobile phones. Smart meters are covered by UK and EU product safety legislation, which requires manufacturers to ensure that any product placed on the market is safe. Manufacturers comply with the legislation by assessing and, if necessary, testing equipment according to agreed EU standards. The standards follow guidelines drawn up by the independent International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP).
There are thousands of peer reviewed studies that show the dangers of radio waves, many of which can be found on this website.The guidelines by the ICNIRP were first set back in the 80,s (before the roll out of existing technology)rejecting any studies that shown the dangers on Non Ionizing Radiation, not surprising when the man who was responsible, Dr Rapocholi, was a known Industry insider.
No surprise either that the threshold between the two groups of radiation was decided amongst physicists and engineers with no input from the medical profession.
Despite the enormous body of evidence and proof that exists showing the damage from NIR, Govts and Industry refuse to accept the evidence.
70% of tests carried out by Non Industry studies have shown ‘adverse affects’ from NIR whilst Industry led studies have shown the exact opposite with 70% claiming ‘No adverse affects’.
It does not take a genius to work out -which group would stand to lose financially? Which group had no financial involvements? Who should we trust?
There are no safe levels and our exposure is 20,000 times greater than it was in the 80,s.
Cordless phones, Wi-fi and Smart meters operate on the 2.4GHz frequency which is the frequency that water molecules vibrate on their axis and of course our bodies are 70% water.
According to studies, 3% of the population are severely sensitive to EMF, 35% are moderately sensitive and 80% are suffering health problems which has been magnified greatly with the introduction of Smart meters.
Smart meters produce 500 to 8000 times more radiation than a mobile phone and they are on constantly.
We are electromagnetic beings, and we are affected by electricity in our environment. The increasing saturation of wireless radiation (cell towers, cell and cordless phones, wi-fi and smart meters) pollutes our air and living environments. http://emfsafetynetwork.org/safety-precautions/electrical-sensitivity/
What about Security?
The lack of security in the smart utilities raises the prospect of a single line of malicious code cutting power to a home or even causing a catastrophic overload leading to exploding meters or house fires, according to Netanel Rubin, co-founder of the security firm Vaultra.
If a hacker took control of a smart meter they would be able to know “exactly when and how much electricity you’re using”. An attacker could also see whether a home had any expensive electronics.
“He can do billing fraud, setting your bill to whatever he likes … The scary thing is if you think about the power they have over your electricity. He will have power over all of your smart devices connected to the electricity. This will have more severe consequences: imagine you woke up to find you’d been robbed by a burglar who didn’t have to break in“But even if you don’t have smart devices, you are still at risk. An attacker who controls the meter also controls the meter’s software, allowing him to cause it to literally explode.”
In 2009 Puerto Rican smart meters were hacked en masse, leading to widespread billing fraud.https://krebsonsecurity.com/2012/04/fbi-smart-meter-hacks-likely-to-spread/
Worse still, all the meters from one utility use the same hardcoded credentials. Access to one meter means access to ALL!
What about Safety?
In some smaller houses, ‘Smart’ Meters will be located in very close proximity to where people spend a lot of their time – including areas where they sleep.
The EMF Safety Network this year reported fires, explosions and burned-out appliances due to ‘Smart’ Meter installations in Australia, Canada and the US.
But with the fact that the UK’s 53mn electricity and gas meters are usually located indoors rather than on exterior walls, the risks with fires here are far more serious.
So despite the fact that they are health risks, fire risks, security risks and have the potential to facilitate the draining of the the energy supply, whilst costing the consumer excessive financial costs, the Govt is still trying to force the public to accept them, so much so that they have resorted to ridiculously pathetic media stories.
It is no surprise that the South Wales Evening Post resorted to these features in order to push the ‘Smart Agenda’. They were one of the six areas given a Government grant to push the Smart City/5G Agenda.
To claim that the public are ‘ drawn to bad news’ and that this is the reason why some are wary of smart meters, which they claim are fears that are unfounded, is pure psychological propaganda. To then go on to produce a competition/questioner with the pushing of this technology and a £500 prize for the winner, is beyond pathetic.
It should be noted that despite the amount of harassment or propaganda that Govts with the aid of the media, are willing to go to, or the underhand levels they are willing to sink to, in order to get this Smart-Control-Surveillance grid off the ground, it is NOT compulsory!
Only by refusing Smart meters can we halt the rolling out of dangerous, unhealthy and costly technologies which include AI, VR and 5G, technologies that do not favour us in the short or long term.
Refuse Smart meters, put an end to this madness.
Links to the Govt publication must include the following;© Crown copyright 2012 Copyright in the typographical arrangement and design rests with the Crown. This publication (excluding logos) may be re-used free of charge in any format or medium provided that it is reused accurately and not used in a misleading context. The material must be acknowledged as Crown copyright and the title of the publication specified.
GROUNDING THE BODY
Benefits of earthing the body, and hazards if it’s enveloped in high electric fields.
Grounding the body appropriately, especially at night, can prove beneficial for health, but most important is sleeping in a minimal electric field. Within a strong electromagnetic field, as created by electrical pollution can cause red blood cells to clump [Rouleaux] which reduce the amount of oxygen reaching the brain. When the body is grounded by direct contact with the natural earth surface for a certain time, the clumps disperse and the circulation improves.
Two experiments during 2010 at the private Dove Clinic near Winchester illustrate the concept with a client who suffered severe electromagnetic and chemical sensitivity. Fortunately two years later she fully recovered after moving from the polluted areas and taking necessary precautions.
The clinic was first checked out for electromagnetic pollution which proved satisfactory. The client was tested for red blood cell clumping before and after exposure: first to a laptop computer running in battery mode (non-wireless), and four weeks later to a DECT (cordless) phone base station, which emits microwave radiation 24/7. Exposure to the laptop caused a degree of red cell clumping but a few minutes of exposure to the phone base station caused a significant clumping. In fact, a body tingling occurred the moment it was switched on. Only after the client sat and walked bare foot in the clinic garden for around two hours did tests show a return to almost normal. In fact, a tingling sensation occurred immediately it was switched on.
Among people interviewed who grounded their body “directly” to earth, some reported favourable results. In one instance a person suffering chronic back pain had sleepless nights and after grounding the pain had vanished, and someone suffering advanced cancer slept more comfortably. Unfortunately, more people reported having no relief from their ailments after grounding, and a few complained of adverse effects and could be due to sleeping or spending some time within an electric field or implementing a poor grounding protocol.
Some people who found it alleviated symptoms initially, it didn’t last very long – a classic placebo scenario. Other researchers discovered grounding had decreased the time needed to go to sleep and made it easier to go back to sleep, enabled deeper sleep, improved the ability to dream and meant that individuals woke up refreshed instead of exhausted. The main factor appears to be keeping the body voltage below the range of nerve cell electrical activity (0.03-0.09 volts).
People sometimes use a volt meter to try and demonstrate this so called “body voltage” disappears like magic when grounded. However, checking the client’s grounded body for the presence of AC electric fields whilst they are holding the electrode of the grounded volt meter is an invalid exercise. At the moment the body is grounded it is at the same earthed potential as a grounded voltmeter and simply shows a shorted circuit. Importantly, when the body is earthed whilst shrouded in high electrical fields, those fields flow constantly flow from the body [seeking earth] like water from a running tap and only create added stress to the body.
Where our body, a 70% bag of highly conductive salty water is constantly bombarded with electro-magnetic waves, it acts like a battery or capacitor continually being charged and discharged, rather like a garden water butt which is filled and overflowing, is used up and filled with the next rain.
These days we are often totally submerged in electromagnetic pollution, and just as we wear waterproof clothing, electro-sensitive people can wear clothing made from a special fabric that helps deflect at least some EM pollution from vulnerable parts of the body, especially the head area!
The “field volt meter” measures an airborne voltage quite unlike the volt meter [multimeter] used to measure voltage from a fixed circuit. A field volt meter is not grounded and measures only airborne fields, including those close to conductive surfaces and close to the body. It registers the voltage present in its normal surroundings and pinpoint hot spots. Incidentally, the meter used to monitor electrostatic fields is called a “field mill”. The multimeter is a useful instrument but as with every test instrument has limited capabilities. A magnetometer measures magnetic fields and RF meters the power density produced from high frequencies such as microwave/radio transmissions.
Using the appropriate test equipment, a body can show higher voltage readings when it’s grounded via the earthed mains and lower one when the body is disconnected from it. The mains earth carries induced low and high frequency signals from internal and external sources such as electrical equipment and radiation from microwave communications. For grounding purposes it is best to use double insulated cable from the grounding sheet directly to earth. The wire is like a screened TV aerial cable [which blocks out unwanted signals] but far more robust, essential, and is expensive. The ground must have a low electrical resistance as in areas with dry, rocky or sandy soil the ground has a high resistance.
If a high resistance resistor [as normal] is fitted in the plug of the aforementioned grounding sheet, the resistance between body and earth is increased. The long wired earth circuit is the worst case scenario. Two bare feet on Mother Earth works better.
A link on this subject:
Virnich MH & Schauer M: “Caution, Grounding Pads and Sheets: Being Grounded Is Not Equal to Zero-Field Exposure” (de-Der Elektro- und Gebaudentechniker, 2005, trans. Gustavs K 2009) (http://buildingbiology.ca/wd/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/FINAL_ACHTUNG_ABSCHIRMDECKE_WEB.pdf
Downloaded from bmjopen.bmj.com
ABSTRACT Objectives: We performed a re-analysis of the data from Navarro et al (2003) in which health symptoms related to microwave exposure from mobile phone base stations (BSs) were explored, including data obtained in a retrospective inquiry about fear of exposure from BSs. Design: Cross-sectional study.
Setting: La Ñora (Murcia), Spain. Participants: Participants with known illness in 2003 were subsequently disregarded: 88 participants instead of 101 (in 2003) were analysed. Since weather circumstances can influence exposure, we restricted data to measurements made under similar weather conditions.
Outcomes and methods: A statistical method indifferent to the assumption of normality was employed: namely, binary logistic regression for modelling a binary response (eg, suffering fatigue (1) or not (0)), and so exposure was introduced as a predictor variable. This analysis was carried out on a regular basis and bootstrapping (95% percentile method) was used to provide more accurate CIs.
Results: The symptoms most related to exposure were lack of appetite (OR=1.58, 95% CI 1.23 to 2.03); lack of concentration (OR=1.54, 95% CI 1.25 to 1.89); irritability (OR=1.51, 95% CI 1.23 to 1.85); and trouble sleeping (OR=1.49, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.84). Changes in –2 log likelihood showed similar results. Concerns about the BSs were strongly related with trouble sleeping (OR =3.12, 95% CI 1.10 to 8.86).
The exposure variable remained statistically significant in the multivariate analysis. The bootstrapped values were similar to asymptotic CIs. Conclusions: This study confirms our preliminary results. We observed that the incidence of most of the symptoms was related to exposure levels— independently of the demographic variables and some possible risk factors. Concerns about adverse effects from exposure, despite being strongly related with sleep disturbances, do not influence the direct association between exposure and sleep.
The health risk due to exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMFs) continues to be discussed today.
The study that led to this debate was initiated after verification that the US embassy in Moscow was being subjected to such radiation from 1953 to May 1975.
Recently, a review of that episode reopened the debate about the potential harmfulness of RF EMFs.
The increasing number of base stations (BSs) on masts and buildings has increased public awareness. This issue has prompted scientific research to establish to what extent low-intensity EMFs may affect the health of humans and other organisms.
Furthermore, the term electromagnetic hypersensitivity has been recently introduced in discussions attributing symptoms to exposure to EMFs.
A review of this topic in 2010 found that 8 of the 10 studies evaluated through PubMed had reported increased prevalence of adverse neurobehavioral symptoms or cancer in populations living at distances <500 m from BSs.
None of the studies reported exposure above accepted international guidelines, suggesting that current guidelines may be inadequate in protecting health.
Thus, the need emerges to revaluate our pioneering work in this field in order to add new procedures and data.
Few articles have addressed the possible association between microwave sickness and microwave exposure from Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) BSs since the publication of our first study.
Chronologically, Santini et al and Gadzicka et al reported differences in the distance dependent prevalence of symptoms such as headache, impaired concentration and Strengths and limitations of this study ▪ We used a robust statistical analysis with a highly homogeneous sample in a homogeneous environment. ▪ A participation bias cannot be ruled out.
The late query about concerns (as a possible confounder) may render the results less valid. ▪ We observed that the incidence of most of the symptoms was related to exposure levels. Gómez-Perretta C, Navarro EA, Segura J, et al. BMJ Open 2013;3:e003836. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2013-003836 1 Open Access Research Downloaded from bmjopen.bmj.com on December 31, 2013 – Published by group.bmj.com irritability.
A later Austrian study showed a positive association between the measured electrical field (GSM 900/ 1800) in bedrooms and headaches, cold hands and feet and difficulties in concentration.
An Egyptian study showed a prevalence of neurological symptoms, such as headache, memory changes, dizziness, tremors, depressive symptoms and sleep disturbances among participants directly exposed to GSM signals from BSs. The symptoms reported by all the above cited authors belong to those attributed to the microwave syndrome.
However, one article using personal monitored data from GSM-UMTS frequency bands found no statistical association in adults. More recently, the same authors observed no association in children, contradictory results in children and adolescents, and concluded that the few observed significant associations were not causal but rather occurred by chance.
Blettner et al reported in phase 1 of their study more health problems closer to BSs, but in phase 2 they concluded that measured EMF emissions were not related to adverse health effects.
Other researchers focused their work on the possible existence of participants with sensitivity to GSM or UMTS signals according to psychological, cognitive or autonomic assessment. These researchers used short term exposure (only 30–50 min) under laboratory conditions and revealed a large disparity between participants.
Recently, a study measuring several biological stress markers found that RF EMF emitted by mobile phone BSs from 5.2 to 2126.8 μW/m2 increased cortisol and salivary α-amylase, while IgA concentration was not significantly modified. The Selbitz study in 2010 described a significant dose–response relationship in symptoms related with sleep, mood, joints, infections, skin condition, as well as neurological, cardiovascular, visual and auditory systems and the gastrointestinal tract.
The existence of short-term physiological effects of EMF on sleep quality was not evident in the work of Danker-Hopfe et al; however, it was stated that the presence of BSs per se (not the EMF) may have a negative impact on sleep quality.
A Polish study in 2012 did not show a correlation between electrical field strength and frequency of subjective symptoms; however, it showed a correlation between subjective symptoms and the distance to BSs.
A study carried out in Egypt revealed that exposure to EMF emitted either from mobile phones or BSs had significant effects on the pituitary–adrenal axis. More recently, work developed in Iran indicated that symptoms such as nausea, headache, dizziness, irritability, discomfort, nervousness, depression, sleep disturbance, memory loss and lowering of libido were statistically significant in people living near BSs (<300 m distances) compared with those living far from the BSs (>300 m).
In our cross-sectional analysis, of symptoms showed statistically significant higher scores in the group with the maximum exposure level. The symptoms are included in the microwave syndrome.
It also reported statistically significant correlation coefficients between the measured electrical field and of symptoms.
A review recently established several conditions for epidemiological studies to be eligible for introduction in general analysis: eligible studies must quantify exposure using objective measures (such as distance to the nearest BS, spot or personal exposure measurements in a specific frequency range); possible confounders must be considered and the selection of the study population must be clearly free of bias in terms of exposure and outcomes.
Accordingly, in this reanalysis of our previous study, possible confounders were included in addition to the specific RF EMF measurements made in 2001 (covering the specific range between 900 and 1800 MHz).
Therefore, we coanalysed the effects of other variables such as sociodemographic data and the use of electronic devices. Concern about being damaged by radiation from antennas was also analysed. The new statistical approach tested the possible influences of other variables, such as demographic data and the use of electronic devices.
Moreover, since some concerns have been raised about possible health consequences caused by the emitted microwaves, we analysed whether these symptoms might be related to fear of exposure.
As some participants refused to allow measurements in their homes, we analysed whether symptom status or subjective distance to the BS could be a bias of participation in the study.
Interestingly, this period was free of other sources of RF such as WIFI or UMTS or the massive use of mobile phones, enabling a specific study of GSM technology.
Finally, the suitability of the size of the sample was analysed.
METHODS Study design We chose a small urban area with mixed rural characteristics: low levels of environmental pollution (more agricultural than industrial); no major differences in socioeconomic characteristics throughout the region (excluding large cities); similar ethnicity (white Caucasian) and language (Spanish) and with mobile phone communication operative for at least 2 years.
La Ñora was chosen because it had the features of a small city, and was located near the capital (Murcia) in a rural environment without any particular health or environmental problems. Consequently, La Ñora was representative of small urban areas in eastern Spain with fewer than 20 000 inhabitants—such rural areas accounting for 19.8% of the population and 35.9% of the territory in Spain.
Two BS masts, each about 30 m height, were sited at different positions to provide GSM-900-1800 coverage.
The GSM 900 BS was positioned not before 1997 while the GSM 1800 BS was built in December 1999.
Data regarding the main demographic characteristics of the sample and their use of electronic devices was collected through a Spanish-language questionnaire.
All Gómez-Perretta C, Navarro EA, Segura J, et al. BMJ Open 2013;3:e003836. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2013-003836 Open Access Downloaded from bmjopen.bmj.com on December 31, 2013 – Published by group.bmj.com of the participants were of the same ethnic origin, shared similar family income levels and general standard of living, and were born in La Ñora or nearby.
All the residents in the study were living in the village before the erection of both BSs. All of the residents were at home for more than 8 h a day for at least 6 days a week and normally slept at home. The core of the questionnaire was a symptom checklist for estimating the frequency of health-related symptoms attributed to microwave sickness. These symptoms were fatigue, irritability, headaches, nausea, loss of appetite, sleep disorders, depressive tendency, dizziness, concentration difficulties, memory loss, skin lesions, visual and hearing deficiencies, walking difficulties and cardiovascular problems.
The frequency was quantified as never suffer = 0, sometimes = 1, often = 2 and very often =3.
The percentage of residents who reported electrical transformers less than 10 m from their home was 21.6%, while 42% reported high-voltage power lines less than 100 m from home. Finally, 40% of residents reported a TV transmitter within a radius of around 4 km.
The questionnaire included a statement that its purpose was health research and that the data gathered would be confidential. Some 215 questionnaires were randomly distributed through 17 streets representing practically the entire village. The houses were selected using a street map of the village. In total, 150 questionnaires were collected with the remainder being uncollected because nobody was at home (31) or there was a refusal by the householder to complete the questionnaire (34).
During 2001, 101 RF EMF measurements in bedrooms were made. The other (49) residents who refused admittance for taking the measurements (16) were not at home for the scheduled measurement appointment (10) or had serious health problems (23). However, some changes are now being introduced in this reanalysis. Thirteen of the participants included in the original study have now been eliminated: 2 participants were eliminated (one regarding alcohol abuse and another regarding pregnancy) to increase the requirement on health criteria and 11 participants were eliminated to increase the homogeneity of the RF EMFs measurements because there was a change (it was raining) in the usual dry weather conditions when the respective broadband measurements were registered. The reanalysis of the dataset, which is the main focus of this paper, was finally performed with 88 participants (45 women and 43 men) instead of the 101 analysed in 2001. Concerns about microwave exposure Sixty-six of the 88 participants were reached by telephone in February 2012 and asked two questions: A. Were you worried about the masts (BSs) when they were erected? B. Did you believe their radiation (BSs) could damage your health? In all cases, those who were worried about the masts were concerned about health consequences. Twentyseven participants (40.9%) responded ‘no’ and 39 (59.1%) responded ‘yes’. Responses were analysed relative to age (analysis of variance (ANOVA) test), sex (λ statistic) and subjective distance to BS (Somers’ D statistic).
Demographic data and the percentage of users of personal computers and mobile phones were analysed. The
mean age was 42 and 17 years (SD±17. 61, interval 15–81). Women totalled 51.1% (mean age=45.08 years,
SD=17.98; interval=15–81) and 48.9% were men (mean age = 39.12 years, SD=16.88; interval=15–75). A total of
13.6% participants regularly used computers and 23.9%used mobile phones.
No differences related with age and use of mobile phones or computers were found between the sexes.
The univariate logistic regression indicated that age was inversely associated with irritability (OR=0.97, 95%
CI 0.95 to 0.99) and that the oldest had the greatest difficulties hearing (OR=1.03, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.06) and
walking (OR=1.04, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.07). However,gender clearly did not influence the outcome of any
dependent variable. Use of mobile phones was linked with lack of appetite and vertigo, while worry about the
radiation from BSs was associated with trouble sleeping(table 1). However, concern about radiation from BSs
was unrelated to age (ANOVA test), sex (λ statistic) or subjective distance to BS (Somers’ D statistic).
Most of the symptoms were related with GSM exposure especially fatigue, irritability, lack of appetite,
trouble sleeping, depression and lack of concentration.
Change in– log likelihood showed similar results(table 2). Figure 1 shows the distribution of EMF measurements
throughout the sample.ROC curves for each of the logistic regression models (GSM exposure vs each symptom) oscillated between0 .65 and 0.87 (table 3). Headaches (0.84), nausea (0.86), appetite (0.87) and vascular problems (0.85) showed the highest values, while memory (0.67), skin (0.67) and visual disturbances (0.65) showed the lowest
The Hosmer and Lemeshow test indicated that most analyses showed no significant p values. The exceptions
were fatigue (0.003), depression (0.003) and vertigo (0.03). In the majority of the cases, the models
predicted better specificity than sensitivity. Only in the case of headaches and sleep disorder, did sensitivity
prevail over specificity (table 3—classification table). In the extreme case, skin and vascular problems showed
null or minimum sensitivity and 100% specificity.
Nagelkerke pseudo R2 showed acceptable coefficients with the exception of the symptoms related with vertigo
and skin problems (table 3).Threshold cut-off values of GSM for sleep, attention, irritability and memory are also shown (table 3). The remaining cut-off values were not considered since sensitivity or specificity was reported at below 0.50%.
This new study partially confirms our preliminary results about microwave sickness resulting from exposure to emissions from GSM mobile phone BSs. Fatigue, irritability, lack of appetite, sleep troubles, depression and lack of concentration were especially related with GSM exposure.
These results were independent of the main sociodemographic variables, other EMF exposures and anxiety
about being irradiated. Nevertheless, we confirm that apprehension about modern technology could predict
some symptoms, especially those related with sleep problems.
Our results agree with those who claimed that by distorting perceptions of risk, disproportionate precaution might
paradoxically lead to illness that would not otherwise occur.
However, health changes related with GSM exposure seem to occur in a manner unrelated with those fears.
Finally, exposure was very low during the period and also very low in comparison with Spanish recommendations
and international guidelines. file:///E:/MEDICAL/2013_subjective_symptoms_related_to_gsm_radiation_from_mobile_phone_base_stations1.pdf
Radiofrequency (RF) refers to the electromagnetic waves ranging between 10 MHz and 300 GHz. RF have been widely used as a signal carrier in telecommunications. Recent advances in mobile phone technology have resulted in the exponential use of mobile phone communication around the world. The increasing exposure of humans to RF fields has raised wide concerns for potential adverse effects of RF fields on human health (http://www.fcc.gov/oet/rfsafety, http://www.fda.gov/cdrh/phones/index.html, http://www.who.int/emf, http://www.iegmp.org.uk/, http://www.verum-foundation.de/).
While it is clear that high energy-electromagnetic waves, such as X-rays have strong biological effects through ionizing damage, it is uncertain whether the low energy, non-ionizing RF fields could have effects on biological systems. Several epidemiological studies suggest a link between long-term RF exposures and pathological consequences such as cancer [1–7]. Molecular studies also suggest the possible influence of RF fields on various aspects of biological activities [8–13]. Although these studies have provided many clues to the issue of RF biological effects, the results are inconclusive and even controversial.
In this study, we used genome-wide gene expression as the indicator to address the issue of biological effects of RF. We used a 2.45 GHz waveguide system to expose human HL-60 cells. We used the serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) technique to analyze the RF effect on gene expression at the genome level . Although gene expression has been used as an indicator in previous RF studies, those studies focused only on a handful number of genes pre-selected with defined functions. We aim to provide genome-wide coverage of the expressed genes regardless their functional categories in the RF treated cells to address if RF has biological effects [15,16]. We consider it particularly important to use this approach for the subject that there is limited biological information available. Our study shows that under the conditions used in our experimental system, the 2.45 GHz RF fields caused the expression changes of a number of genes.
2 Materials and methods
2.1 Cell culture
Human HL-60 cell line was purchased from ATCC. Cells were cultured in the RPMI 1640 medium + 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) in an incubator at 37 °C with 5% CO2. Cells used for experiments were at the exponential growth phase. Prior to RF exposure, cells were spanned down and re-suspended in 10 ml of fresh medium at the density of 106/ml. The cells were then transferred to a 25 ml culture flask for RF exposure.
2.2 RF exposure system
The RF exposure system used for experiments was described in detail (Gerber et al. manuscript in preparation). Briefly, the RF source was a pulsed magnetron (Cober Muegge). It was pulsed at duration of 155 μs and a duty cycle of 7.5%, producing a peak power of 3 W into the waveguide. The measured average power was 225 mW, of which 100 mW was absorbed by the 10 ml cell suspension to provide the average SAR value of 10 W/kg. Using the measured 2.61 S/m conductivity of the medium at 2.45 GHz with the 133 W/kg SAR during the pulse, the calculated electric field is 320 V/m. A control waveguide, identical to the experimental waveguide was used for a sham exposure. Restricted by the cost of SAGE experiment, only the 2-h sham exposed cells were used as the control for the 2 and 6 h RF exposed cells. A flask containing a 10 ml HL-60 cell suspension at 106/ml was placed inside a WR340 brass waveguide having inside dimensions of 86.36 × 43.18 mm. The cells were allowed to settle down to the bottom of the flask to form a monolayer before exposure. The bottom of the flask is ground flat and coated with mineral oil to obtain good thermal conduction between the cell monolayer and brass waveguide. The bottom of the waveguide has an exterior plastic water channel glued to it such that the turbulent flowing water is in direct contact with the brass surface. A 5% air–CO2 mixture was introduced into the waveguide through a hole in its top surface. The brass surface was maintained at 37 °C through the use of a temperature-controlled water circulator. Two temperature probes (Luxtron) were inserted into the bottom surface of the flask to monitor the temperature. The temperature was maintained at 37.2 ± 0.2 °C during the exposure period.
2.3 SAGE process
The SAGE process followed the standard procedures [14,17]. Briefly, it includes the following steps: mRNA isolation from the cells, cDNA synthesis, NlaIII digestion of cDNAs, 3′cDNA collection, tag releasing from 3′ cDNA, ditags formation, ditag concatemerization, cloning, and DNA sequencing. SAGE tag sequences were extracted from the raw sequences using SAGE300 software. The SAGE data is deposited in NCBI with accession number GSE3025 (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/projects/geo).
2.4 SAGE data analysis
To determine the gene origin of SAGE tags, the experimental SAGE tags were matched to the SAGEmap database (www.ncbi.nlm.nih/SAGEmap). A SAGE tag is assigned to a gene if it has a match in the reference database; and a SAGE tags is defined as a novel tag if it has no match in the SAGEmap database. To identify a specific gene for the SAGE tags shared by multiple genes in SAGEmap database, these tags were matched to a tissue-specific SAGE annotation database under the cell type “HL-60” (www.basic.northwestern.edu/SAGE/). By using the microarray expression data from the specific tissue type to annotate the SAGE tags collected from the same tissue type, this database provides high accuracy of gene prediction for SAGE tags shared by multiple genes (Ge et al., manuscript in preparation). To identify the differences in SAGE tags between the control and exposed cells, the method of Audic and Claverie (; http://telethon.bio.unipd.it/bioinfo/IDEG6_form/), a statistical method designed for SAGE analysis, was used for the comparison under P < 0.05 as the cut-off. Greater than 4-fold differences between samples was set as the second cut-off threshold to provide high confidence for the identification of alternatively expressed genes between different samples. To visualize the changes of gene expression, the “Cluster” and “Treeview” programs were used to generate the average linkage hierarchical clustering using Pearson’s correlation coefficient as a distance metrics . The Gene Ontology “biological process” terms were used to identify the functional categories of RF-response genes at P < 0.05 (; http://www.geneontology.org
Recently we found out the news via Ann Marie Carey that Mark Steele had been contacted by Bemri, Bio Electromagnetic experts with 60 + years of experience in EMF research. Their kind offer to come to Gateshead for free, and measure RFs coming from the street lights, to test for any possible anomalies that could be 5G was rejected by Mark. Im sure I was not the only one shocked by this news.
Having been previously involved in getting Mark some interviews with a couple of well respected alternative media news sites Windows on the World Mark Alexander Scott and BCfm Politics Show with Tony Gosling, I was gutted to hear that Mark had not only declined their offer to meet up, but had accused them of not knowing anything about 5G.
Living about 10 mins from Gateshead myself, I offered to meet one of the guys from Bemri, and take him to the places where Mark got his EMF readings in the 700Mhz range. Bemri used specialist sensitive equipment, including a log par directional meter and many other measuring devices. The RF readings were similar to Marks, but it was noted that there were huge mobile masts in each of the locations, which would have affected the readings. Also did Mark film his videos of EMF readings with a smart phone? Again this would interfere with the readings. He refuses to answer that question when I asked but he did call me ‘desperate’ for assuming so. Bemri obtained many readings, some with a smart phone switched on close to the meter. And yes, with the smart phone on, readings were in the 700Mhz range, similar to Marks.
During the visit to Gateshead, there were no anomalies picked up by the EMF equipment and a conclusion was made that no 5G signals were picked up, only 4G. The lamp posts were acknowledged to be emitting these RFs.
Annie and myself were very grateful to Bemri for taking the time to test the lights in Gateshead, and Stockport was found to have similar results from their antenna’d LED lamp posts too.
I have spoken to Mark Steele after Bemri’s visit and listened to his response. He still believes these people do not know what 5G is, and questions their expertise.
I, on the other hand question Marks choices he has made, in the fight to stop 5G. At no point during his interviews, did Mark choose to mention Annie’s FB group or her campaign resources. She had asked him to and he said he would, but he didn’t. Why would you do that to a fellow campaigner? It makes no sense. I would have thought that was a golden opportunity to let audiences of the shows know how they could get active on the street, handing out leaflets, making people aware of the 5G issue etc. Instead Mark used the platform to ask people to join his political party. A party that has 3 years to try getting to parliament to stop 5G, when 5G has a proposed roll out date of 2020. I joined this party a while back, but received no email newsletters.
I’ve stated facts here about the Gateshead 5G lamps visit by Bemri, and I’ve given only a small fraction of my opinion on Mark Steele. People will make up their own minds on him.
With recent advances in millimeter-wave technology, including the availability of high-power sources, in this band, it has become necessary to understand the biological implications of this energy for human beings. This paper gives the millimeter-wave absorption efficiency for the human body with and without clothing. Ninety to ninety-five percent of the incident energy may be absorbed in the skin with dry clothing, with or without an intervening air gap, acting as an impedance transformer. On account of the submillimeter depths of penetration in the skin, superficial SAR’s as high as 65-357 W/Kg have been calculated for power density of incident radiation corresponding to the ANSI guideline of 5 mW/cm/sup 2/. Because most of the millimeter-wave absorption is in the region of the cutaneous thermal receptors (0.1-1.0 mm), the sensations of absorbed energy are likely to be similar to those of IR. For the latter, threshold of heat perception is near 0.67 mW/cm/sup 2/, with power densities on the order of 8.7 mW/cm/sup 2/ likely to cause sensations of ”very warm to hot” with a latency of 1.0 +- 0.6 s. Calculations are made for thresholds of hearing of pulsed millimeter waves. Pulsed energy densities of 143/579 ..mu..J/cm/sup 2/ are obtained for the frequency band 30-300 GHz. These are 8-28 times larger than the threshold for microwaves below 3 GHz. The paper also points to the need for evaluation of ocular effects of millimeter-wave irradiation because of high SAR’s in the cornea.
Gandhi, O.P., and Riazi, A.. Absorption of millimeter waves by human beings and its biological implications. United States: N. p., 1986. Web. doi:10.1109/TMTT.1986.1133316.
Arousing from their very deep slumber, MSM is finally covering the environmental impacts of wireless and what 5g will mean to wildlife.
“Technology is quite literally destroying nature, with a new report further confirming that electromagnetic radiation from power lines and cell towers can disorientate birds and insects and destroy plant health. The paper warns that as nations switch to 5G this threat could increase.”
“This is not a new finding, as studies dating back for years have come to the same conclusion. In fact, one study from 2010 even suggested that this electromagnetic radiation may be playing a role in the decline of certain animal and insect populations. The radio waves can disrupt the magnetic ‘compass’ that many migrating birds and insects use. The creatures may become disorientated, AFP reported.”
Exclusive: five-year ‘enhanced clearance’ programme targets trees along 20,000 miles of track to avoid delays, according to an internal document
Network Rail is to target all “leaf fall” trees for removal alongside its tracks in a new £800m five-year programme of “enhanced clearance”, according to an internal document seen by the Guardian.
The policy document for 2019-24 emerged as the environment secretary, Michael Gove, summoned the chief executive of Network Rail for talks over their approach to environmental management following revelations about tree felling across the country by the Guardian.
After discussions with Network Rail, Jo Johnson, the rail minister, set up a review into vegetation management . He called for all tree felling to be suspended during the current nesting season – March to August.
Johnson said: “This review will look at all aspects of this issue, including, for instance, whether Network Rail has the capacity and capability to control vegetation in a way that minimises harm to wildlife, and whether staff need more training to help with tree identification and identifying approaches that would be better than felling.”
The leaked document seen by the Guardian sets out a new programme which appears to go further than any current environmental management. It involves an “enhanced level of clearance” of trees and vegetation from the railway banks along 20,000 miles of lines in the UK, in an attempt to deal with costly delays to services.
The document says Network Rail has to manage the risk from 13 million trees within falling distance of its tracks. If they removed 2% of the trees a year over the five-year period, more than 1 million trees could be felled.
“Network Rail is responsible for any damage that they may cause unless it can be robustly demonstrated that it has taken reasonable steps to reduce the risk of that damage occurring,” the document states.
Network Rail said in a statement that it was constantly balancing the needs of the environment against passenger health and safety.
Key species of tree to be targeted for removal are those which the company says are high risk due to the amount and size of leaves they produce. They include sycamore, poplar, horse and sweet chestnut, ash and lime.
Network Rail bosses say in the document they need to reduce the risk of leaves and trees falling on to the lines, improve performance and safety and cut the hundreds of millions of pounds it pays in compensation – called schedule 8 payments – for delays.
Entitled Lineside Asset Management Control Period 6 (CP6), the policy involves the “removal of all leaf fall species” within falling distance of the track, “intensive intervention” on vegetation in close proximity to the railway and the removal of emergent lower level growth at the earliest stage.
The boundary for management of scrub, grasses, trees and shrubs will also increase from five metres either side of the railway – which has been the policy for the last five years – to a minimum of 6.5m.
The document concludes that the initial level of investment – £41,000 per mile of track for the enhanced clearance – will result in “a far better performing, safer railway”.
Grasses and scrubland alongside Britain’s railway lines are made up of more than 1,600 species of plants, including 900 varieties known of as “railway species” that are exclusive to the trackside.
Senior politicians have been in discussions with the publicly owned company over the scale of its vegetation clearance after the Guardian revealed last week millions of trees are at risk.
Gove invited Mark Carne, chief executive of Network Rail, for talks at his office on Wednesday.
Details of the new planned trackside clearances come as a petition calling on Network Rail to “stop chopping down millions of trees” attracted more than 60,000 signatures.
The scale of felling taking place in the five years to the end of 2018 is not known. Network Rail has not responded to requests to provide the Guardian with an aerial map highlighting “problem” trees earmarked for felling, or reveal how many have been removed in the last year.
A freedom of information response revealed that 30,000 trees were felled by Network Rail or their contractors on the west coast mainline between Euston and Carlisle in the 12 months between February 2016 and February 2017.
Network Rail said there were no plans to replace any of the trees in its FOI response.
Network Rail says in the document it will adhere to environmental legislation which requires it to restrict practices at certain locations or certain times of the year. It says the risks to poor performance and safety from trees includes obstruction of the line, causing delays and putting staff and passengers at risk.
Between March 2016 and March 2017 there were 720 incidents with trees, according to the document. Of these 233 trees were struck by trains. “The likelihood of a tree failure causing an accident is high,” the document states.
The company says the impact from falling leaves in the autumn of 2015 involved four signals passed at danger, 91 wrong side failures and 61 station overruns due to poor rail adhesion attributed to leaf fall contamination.
These incidents, it says, cost Network Rail between £100m and £150m.
Network Rail says in the document that trees and vegetation can have a positive benefit in terms of lineside ecology where desirable flora and fauna has been identified and sustainable management plans have been put into place. It also states the company will “manage the vegetation to comply with legal requirements to protect the environment.”
A spokesperson for Network Rail said it was constantly balancing the needs of the environment with passenger safety and welcomed Johnson’s review.
“Last year we recorded over 400 incidents of trains colliding with fallen trees and another 1,000 where they caused delays to services, costing the industry over £100m. As a result, we have well thought-out standards and policies in place that have been developed over many years with the help of experts that we believe strike the right balance and maintains a safe and biodiverse line side.
“Most of the time when putting those standards and policies into action we get it right, but sometimes we don’t.”
Sara Lom, chief executive of the Tree Council, which works closely with Network Rail, has not seen the new policy document. She said: “We are Network Rail’s critical friend. When things go wrong, as they sometimes do, we tell them.”
She said the charity was carrying out trials with the company this autumn to look at different ways to manage vegetation apart from tree felling. “Alternatives to removal could be coppicing or pollarding or hedging,” she said. “That is better for wildlife, and better for people in the local community.”