Department of Life Sciences and Chemistry, Jacobs University Bremen, Campus Ring 6, D-28759 Bremen, Germany. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.orgDepartment of Life Sciences and Chemistry, Jacobs University Bremen, Campus Ring 6, D-28759 Bremen, Germany. Electronic address: MelanieCK@gmx.de.3Department of Life Sciences and Chemistry, Jacobs University Bremen, Campus Ring 6, D-28759 Bremen, Germany. Electronic address: email@example.comDepartment of Psychology and Methods, Jacobs University Bremen, Campus Ring 1, D-28759 Bremen, Germany. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.orgChair of Electromagnetic Theory, University of Wuppertal, Rainer-Gruenter-Str. 21, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany. Electronic address: email@example.comChair of Electromagnetic Theory, University of Wuppertal, Rainer-Gruenter-Str. 21, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.orgChair of Electromagnetic Theory, University of Wuppertal, Rainer-Gruenter-Str. 21, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany. Electronic address: email@example.comChair of Electromagnetic Theory, University of Wuppertal, Rainer-Gruenter-Str. 21, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.orgChair of Electromagnetic Theory, University of Wuppertal, Rainer-Gruenter-Str. 21, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany. Electronic address: email@example.com.
The vast majority of in vitro and in vivo studies did not find cancerogenic effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF), i.e. emitted by mobile phones and base stations. Previously published results from a pilot study with carcinogen-treated mice, however, suggested tumor-promoting effects of RF-EMF (Tillmann et al., 2010). We have performed a replication study using higher numbers of animals per group and including two additional exposure levels (0 (sham), 0.04, 0.4 and 2 W/kg SAR). We could confirm and extend the originally reported findings. Numbers of tumors of the lungs and livers in exposed animals were significantly higher than in sham-exposed controls. In addition, lymphomas were also found to be significantly elevated by exposure. A clear dose-response effect is absent. We hypothesize that these tumor-promoting effects may be caused by metabolic changes due to exposure. Since many of the tumor-promoting effects in our study were seen at low to moderate exposure levels (0.04 and 0.4 W/kg SAR), thus well below exposure limits for the users of mobile phones, further studies are warranted to investigate the underlying mechanisms. Our findings may help to understand the repeatedly reported increased incidences of brain tumors in heavy users of mobile phones.
Quickly changing technologies and intensive uses of radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF)‑emitting phones pose a challenge to public health. Mobile phone users and uses and exposures to other wireless transmitting devices (WTDs) have increased in the past few years. We consider that CERENAT, a French national study, provides an important addition to the literature evaluating the use of mobile phones and risk of brain tumors. The CERENAT finding of increased risk of glioma is consistent with studies that evaluated use of mobile phones for a decade or longer and corroborate those that have shown a risk of meningioma from mobile phone use. In CERENAT, exposure to RF‑EMF from digitally enhanced cordless telephones (DECTs), used by over half the population of France during the period of this study, was not evaluated. If exposures to DECT phones could have been taken into account, the risks of glioma from mobile phone use in CERENAT are likely to be higher than published. We conclude that radiofrequency fields should be classified as a Group 2A ̔probable̓ human carcinogen under the criteria used by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (Lyon, France). Additional data should be gathered on exposures to mobile and cordless phones, other WTDs, mobile phone base stations and Wi‑Fi routers to evaluate their impact on public health. We advise that the as low as reasonable achievable (ALARA) principle be adopted for uses of this technology, while a major cross‑disciplinary effort is generated to train researchers in bioelectromagnetics and provide monitoring of potential health impacts of RF‑EMF.
Environmental Health Trust, Teton Village, WY 83025, USA.2Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M4N 3P7, Canada.3INSERM, ISPED, Centre INSERM U897‑Epidémiologie‑Biostatistique, F‑33000 Bordeaux, France.
“Current evidence indicates that exposure at levels that are found in the environment (in urban areas and near base stations) may particularly alter the receptor organs to orient in the magnetic field of the earth. These results could have important implications for migratory birds and insects, especially in urban areas, but could also apply to birds and insects in natural and protected areas where there are powerful base station emitters of radiofrequencies. Therefore, more research on the effects of electromagnetic radiation in nature is needed to investigate this emerging threat.”https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25747364
Exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation was classified in 2011 as a possible human carcinogen, Group 2B, by the International Agency for Research on Cancer of the World Health Organisation. Evidence of the risk of cancer risk has since strengthened. Exposure is changing due to the rapid development of technology resulting in increased ambient radiation. RF radiation of sufficient intensity heats tissues, but the energy is insufficient to cause ionization, hence it is called non-ionizing radiation. These non-thermal exposure levels have resulted in biological effects in humans, animals and cells, including an increased cancer risk. In the present study, the levels of RF radiation were measured in an apartment close to two groups of mobile phone base stations on the roof. A total of 74,531 measurements were made corresponding to ~83 h of recording. The total mean RF radiation level was 3,811 µW/m2 (range 15.2-112,318 µW/m2) for the measurement of the whole apartment, including balconies. Particularly high levels were measured on three balconies and 3 of 4 bedrooms. The total mean RF radiation level decreased by 98% when the measured down-links from the base stations for 2, 3 and 4 G were disregarded. The results are discussed in relation to the detrimental health effects of non-thermal RF radiation. Due to the current high RF radiation, the apartment is not suitable for long-term living, particularly for children who may be more sensitive than adults. For a definitive conclusion regarding the effect of RF radiation from nearby base stations, one option would be to turn them off and repeat the measurements. However, the simplest and safest solution would be to turn them off and dismantle them.
Researchers from Valencia University in Spain, investigated people’s health in a small town near Murcia, where two mobile phone masts had been erected in the past 7 years. The results of the investigations have been plotted against levels of radiation in their homes from the masts, to see if there is any link between the radiation levels and health problems.
Many symptoms of ‘microwave sickness’ increased considerably with exposure to microwave radiation, in particular Depression, Fatigue, Concentration Loss, Appetite Loss and Heart and Blood Pressure Problems. These occurred at radiation levels found around most masts.
Appetite Loss increased by up to 25-fold.
Author/s: Oberfeld Gerd, Navarro A. Enrique et al
Title: The Microwave Syndrome – Further Aspects of a Spanish Study
Dr. Magda Havas (Environmental and Resources department, Trent University, Ontario, Canada), has written an excellent precautionary paper, prepared for the Board of Supervisors, City and County of San Fransisco. This 51 page document covers a wide range of literature and scientific findings on RF research, and presents them in a logical and progressive manner.
The following pages present guidelines for radio frequency radiation in various countries;
scientific studies that document the adverse effects of living near cell phone antennas (it is the
closest we have to Wi-Fi antennas) for both humans and animals; and laboratory studies that
demonstrate the harmful effects of radio frequency radiation. The levels showing adverse
biological/health effects are compared to FCC guidelines and to calculations of likely exposure in
San Francisco attributed to the Earthlink Wi-Fi Network as discussed in “Earthlink-Proposed San
Francisco-Wide Wi-Fi Network: Observations and Calculations for Relation to Exposure Limits”
prepared by Mitch Maifeld of Zenzic Research.
Many jurisdictions have had to deal with this issue and some of their recommendations regarding
placement of radio frequency transmitters are also presented. While these apply to cell phone
antennas they are relevant to Wi-Fi antennas. Physicians and scientists from around the world
are asking governments to review the existing guidelines and to revisit the use of this technology
to ensure its safety. These resolutions are summarized in the text and are presented in full in the Appendix.
This is the 2nd part of a survey study conducted on 530 people (270 men, 260 women) living or not in vicinity of cellular phone base stations. Comparison of complaints frequencies for 16 Non Specific Health Symptoms was done with the CHI-Square test with Yates correction. Our results show significant increase (p < 0.05) in relation with age of subjects (elder subjects are more sensitive) and also, that the facing location is the worst position for some symptoms studied, especially for distances till 100 m from base stations. No significant difference is observed in the frequency of symptoms related to the duration of exposure (from < 1 year to > 5 years), excepted for irritability significantly increased after > 5 years. Other electromagnetic factors (electrical transformers, radio-television transmitters,…) have effects on the frequency of some symptoms reported by the subjects.
International Journal of Cancer Prevention
VOLUME 1, NUMBER 2, APRIL 2004
Increased Incidence of Cancer near a Cell-Phone Transmitter Station
by Ronni Wolf and Danny Wolf
Significant concern has been raised about possible health effects from exposure to radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields, especially after the rapid introduction of mobile telecommunications systems.
Parents are especially concerned with the possibility that children might develop cancer after exposure to the RF emissions from mobile telephone base stations erected in or near schools. The few epidemiologic studies that did report on cancer incidence in relation to RF radiation
have generally presented negative or inconsistent results, and thus emphasize the
need for more studies that should investigate cohorts with high RF exposure for
changes in cancer incidence. The aim of this study is to investigate whether there is
an increased cancer incidence in populations, living in a small area, and exposed to RF radiation from a cell-phone transmitter station.
The study indicates an association between increased incidence of cancer and living in proximity to a cell-phone transmitter station.
Twelve institutes in seven countries have found genotoxic effects and modified expressions on numerous genes and proteins after Radio frequency and extremely low frequency EMF exposure at low levels, below current international safety guidance, to living cells in-vitro. These results confirm the likelihood of long-term genetic damage in the blood and brains of users of mobile phones and other sources of electromagnetic fields. The idea behind the REFLEX study was to attempt replicate damage already reported to see if the effects were real and whether, or not, more money should be spent of research into the possible adverse health effects of EMF exposure. They concluded that in-vitro damage is real and that it is important to carry out much more research, especially monitoring the long-term health of people.
The REFLEX project (QLK4-CT-1999-01574 / REFLEX / Final Report) has made a substantial contribution to the database on biological effects of both ELF-EMF and RF-EMF on in vitro cellular systems. The study was designed to investigate whether or not EMF exposure below the energy density reflected by the present safety levels generates in vitro critical cellular events. Gene mutations, deregulated cell proliferation and suppressed or exaggerated programmed cell death (apoptosis) that are caused by or result in an altered gene and protein expression profile are such critical events, the convergence of which is required for the development of chronic diseases. Genotoxic effects and a modified expression of numerous genes and proteins after EMF exposure could be demonstrated with great certainty, while effects on cell proliferation, cell differentiation and apoptosis were much less conclusive. Since all these observations were made in in vitro studies, the results obtained neither preclude nor confirm a health risk due to EMF exposure, but they speak in favour of such a possibility. Because of their fundamental character the findings will be presented to WHO, IARC and ICNIRP. It will be up to these organisations to make use of them for risk evaluation, in combination with findings from animal and epidemiological studies.