Horst Eger, Klaus Uwe Hagen, Birgitt Lucas, Peter Vogel, Helmut Voit
Published in Umwelt·Medizin·Gesellschaft 17,4 2004, as:
‘Einfluss der räumlichen Nähe von Mobilfunksendeanlagen auf die Krebsinzidenz’


Summary
Following the call by Wolfram König, President of the Bundesamt für Strahlenschutz (Federal Agency
for radiation protection), to all doctors of medicine to collaborate actively in the assessment of the
risk posed by cellular radiation, the aim of our study was to examine whether people living close to
cellular transmitter antennas were exposed to a heightened risk of taking ill with malignant tumors.
The basis of the data used for the survey were PC files of the case histories of patients between the

years 1994 and 2004. While adhering to data protection, the personal data of almost 1,000 patients were evaluated for this study, which was completed without any external financial support. It is intended to continue the project in the form of a register.
The result of the study shows that the proportion of newly developing cancer cases was significantly higher among those patients who had lived during the past ten years at a distance of up to 400 metres
from the cellular transmitter site, which has been in operation since 1993, compared to those patients
living further away, and that the patients fell ill on average 8 years earlier.
In the years 1999-2004, ie after five years’ operation of the transmitting installation, the relative risk of getting cancer had trebled for the residents of the area in the proximity of the installation compared to the inhabitants of Naila outside the area.
Key words: cellular radiation, cellular transmitter antennas, malignant tumours. Full PDF; https://www.powerwatch.org.uk/news/20041118_naila.pdf

Institut national des sciences appliquées, laboratoire de biochimie-pharmacologie, bâtiment Louis Pasteur, 20, avenue Albert Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne, France. rsantini@insa-lyon.fr

Erratum in

  • Pathol Biol (Paris). 2002 Dec;50(10):621..

Abstract

A survey study using questionnaire was conducted in 530 people (270 men, 260 women) living or not in vicinity of cellular phone base stations, on 18 Non Specific Health Symptoms. Comparisons of complaints frequencies (CHI-SQUARE test with Yates correction) in relation with distance from base station and sex, show significant (p < 0.05) increase as compared to people living > 300 m or not exposed to base station, till 300 m for tiredness, 200 m for headache, sleep disturbance, discomfort, etc. 100 m for irritability, depression, loss of memory, dizziness, libido decrease, etc. Women significantly more often than men (p < 0.05) complained of headache, nausea, loss of appetite, sleep disturbance, depression, discomfort and visual perturbations. This first study on symptoms experienced by people living in vicinity of base stations shows that, in view of radioprotection, minimal distance of people from cellular phone base stations should not be < 300 m.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12168254

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

There is a general concern on the possible hazardous health effects of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiations (RFR) emitted from mobile phone base station antennas on the human nervous system.

AIM:

To identify the possible neurobehavioral deficits among inhabitants living nearby mobile phone base stations.

METHODS:

A cross-sectional study was conducted on (85) inhabitants living nearby the first mobile phone station antenna in Menoufiya governorate, Egypt, 37 are living in a building under the station antenna while 48 opposite the station. A control group (80) participants were matched with the exposed for age, sex, occupation and educational level. All participants completed a structured questionnaire containing: personal, educational and medical histories; general and neurological examinations; neurobehavioral test battery (NBTB) [involving tests for visuomotor speed, problem solving, attention and memory]; in addition to Eysenck personality questionnaire (EPQ).

RESULTS:

The prevalence of neuropsychiatric complaints as headache (23.5%), memory changes (28.2%), dizziness (18.8%), tremors (9.4%), depressive symptoms (21.7%), and sleep disturbance (23.5%) were significantly higher among exposed inhabitants than controls: (10%), (5%), (5%), (0%), (8.8%) and (10%), respectively (P<0.05). The NBTB indicated that the exposed inhabitants exhibited a significantly lower performance than controls in one of the tests of attention and short-term auditory memory [Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT)]. Also, the inhabitants opposite the station exhibited a lower performance in the problem solving test (block design) than those under the station. All inhabitants exhibited a better performance in the two tests of visuomotor speed (Digit symbol and Trailmaking B) and one test of attention (Trailmaking A) than controls. The last available measures of RFR emitted from the first mobile phone base station antennas in Menoufiya governorate were less than the allowable standard level.

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS:

Inhabitants living nearby mobile phone base stations are at risk for developing neuropsychiatric problems and some changes in the performance of neurobehavioral functions either by facilitation or inhibition. So, revision of standard guidelines for public exposure to RER from mobile phone base station antennas and using of NBTB for regular assessment and early detection of biological effects among inhabitants around the stations are recommended.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16962663

Abstract

Background

The use of cellular and cordless telephones has increased dramatically during the last decade. There is concern of health problems such as malignant diseases due to microwave exposure during the use of these devices. The brain is the main target organ.

Methods

Since the second part of the 1990’s we have performed six case-control studies on this topic encompassing use of both cellular and cordless phones as well as other exposures. Three of the studies concerned brain tumours, one salivary gland tumours, one non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and one testicular cancer. Exposure was assessed by self-administered questionnaires.

Results

Regarding acoustic neuroma analogue cellular phones yielded odds ratio (OR) = 2.9, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 2.0–4.3, digital cellular phones OR = 1.5, 95 % CI = 1.1–2.1 and cordless phones OR = 1.5, 95 % CI = 1.04–2.0. The corresponding results were for astrocytoma grade III-IV OR = 1.7, 95 % CI = 1.3–2.3; OR = 1.5, 95 % CI = 1.2–1.9 and OR = 1.5, 95 % CI = 1.1–1.9, respectively. The ORs increased with latency period with highest estimates using > 10 years time period from first use of these phone types. Lower ORs were calculated for astrocytoma grade I-II. No association was found with salivary gland tumours, NHL or testicular cancer although an association with NHL of T-cell type could not be ruled out.

Conclusion

We found for all studied phone types an increased risk for brain tumours, mainly acoustic neuroma and malignant brain tumours. OR increased with latency period, especially for astrocytoma grade III-IV. No consistent pattern of an increased risk was found for salivary gland tumours, NHL, or testicular cancer.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1621063/

Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine, Dankook University, Cheonan, and Department of Occupational Medicine, Hallym University Hospital, Anyang, South Korea. minaha@dku.edu

Abstract

Leukemia and brain cancer patients under age 15 years, along with controls with respiratory illnesses who were matched to cases on age, sex, and year of diagnosis (1993-1999), were selected from 14 South Korean hospitals using the South Korean Medical Insurance Data System. Diagnoses were confirmed through the South Korean National Cancer Registry. Residential addresses were obtained from medical records. A newly developed prediction program incorporating a geographic information system that was modified by the results of actual measurements was used to estimate radio-frequency radiation (RFR) exposure from 31 amplitude modulation (AM) radio transmitters with a power of 20 kW or more. A total of 1,928 leukemia patients, 956 brain cancer patients, and 3,082 controls were analyzed. Cancer risks were estimated using conditional logistic regression adjusted for residential area, socioeconomic status, and community population density. The odds ratio for all types of leukemia was 2.15 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00, 4.67) among children who resided within 2 km of the nearest AM radio transmitter as compared with those resided more than 20 km from it. For total RFR exposure from all transmitters, odds ratios for lymphocytic leukemia were 1.39 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.86) and 1.59 (95% CI: 1.19, 2.11) for children in the second and third quartiles, respectively, versus the lowest quartile. Brain cancer and infantile cancer were not associated with AM RFR.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17556764

Papers finding adverse biological effects or damage to health from Wi-Fi signals, Wi-Fi-enabled devices or Wi-Fi frequencies (2.4 or 5 GHz).

Papers listed are those where exposures are below the current ICNIRP guideline values.  If the ICNIRP values were protective, we would not be seeing the damaging effects reported in the studies below.  Children are exposed to Wi-Fi/2.45GHz in schools every day, around the world.  Children are sitting with Wi-Fi-enabled tablet computers on their laps and up against their bodies for prolonged periods of time.  The studies below support the claim that schools giving children wireless devices to use, or exposing them to Wi-Fi signals, are failing to safeguard the health, development or wellbeing of the young people for whom they are responsible.  

Papers are in alphabetical order.  A file of some first pages, for printing, can be found here.

http://wifiinschools.org.uk/30.html

Guo L, Lin JJ, Xue YZ, An GZ, Zhang JP, Zhang KY, He W, Wang H, Li W, Ding GR. Effects of 220 MHz
Pulsed Modulated Radiofrequency Field on the Sperm Quality in Rats. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019
Apr 10;16(7). pii: E1286. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16071286.

Abstract
Under some occupational conditions, workers are inevitably exposed to high-intensity radiofrequency (RF) fields.

In this study, we investigated the effects of one-month exposure to a 220 MHz pulsed modulated RF field at the power density of 50 W/m2 on the sperm quality in male adult rats.

The sperm quality was evaluated by measuring the number, abnormality and survival rate of sperm cells. The morphology of testis was examined by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. The levels of secreting factors by Sertoli cells (SCs) and Leydig cells (LCs) were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The level of cleaved caspase 3 in the testis was detected by immunofluorescence staining. Finally, the expression levels of the apoptosis- related protein (caspase 3, BAX and BCL2) in the testis were assessed by Western blotting.

Compared with the sham group, the sperm quality in the RF group decreased significantly. The levels of secreting factors of SCs and the morphology of the testis showed an obvious change after RF exposure. The level of the secreting factor of LCs decreased significantly after RF exposure. The levels of cleaved caspase 3, caspase 3, and the BAX/BCL2 ratio in the testis increased markedly after RF exposure.

These data collectively suggested that under the present experimental conditions, 220 MHz pulsed modulated RF exposure could impair sperm
quality in rats, and the disruption of the secreting function of LCs and increased apoptosis of testis cells induced by the RF field might be accounted for by this damaging effect.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30977029

Note: This was not Wi-Fi because the signals were not modulated.

Gupta SK, Patel SK, Tomar MS, Singh SK, Mesharam MK, Krishnamurthy S. Long-term exposure of 2450 MHz electromagnetic radiation induces stress and anxiety like behavior in rats. Neurochemistry
International. Publ. online Apr 4, 2019.

Long term exposure of electromagnetic radiations (EMR) from cell phones and Wi-Fi hold greater propensity to cause anxiety disorders. However, the studies investigating the effects of chronic exposure of EMR are limited.
Therefore, we investigated the effects of repeated exposure of discrete frequency of EMR in experimental animals.

Male rats were exposed to EMR (900, 1800 and 2450 MHz) for 28 (1 h/day) days. Long term exposure of EMR (2450 MHz) induced anxiety like behaviour. It deregulated the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal
(HPA) axis in rats as observed by increase in plasma corticosterone levels apart from decreased corticotrophin releasing hormone-2 (CRH-2) and Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression in amygdala. Further, it impaired
mitochondrial function and integrity. The expression of Bcl2 showed significant decrease while Bax and ratio of Bax: Bcl2 were increased in the mitochondria and vice versa in cytoplasm indicating altered regulation of
apoptosis. EMR exposure caused release of cytochrome-c and expression of caspase-9 ensuing activation of apoptotic cell death.

Additional set of experiments performed to estimate the pattern of cell death showed necrotic and apoptotic amygdalar cell death after EMR exposure. Histopathological studies also revealed a significant decrease in neuronal cells in amygdala. The above findings indicate that long-term exposure of EMR radiation (2450 MHz) acts as a stressor and induces anxiety-like behaviors with concomitant pathophysiological changes in EMR subjected rats.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30954502

Bystander effect (radiobiology) The radiation-induced bystander effect (bystander effect) is the phenomenon in which non irradiated cells exhibit irradiated effects as a result of signals received from nearby irradiated cells.

Direct and indirect effects of exposure to 900 MHz GSM RF EMF on CHO cell line:
Evidence of bystander effect by non-ionizing radiation
Jooyan N, Goliaei B, Bigdeli B, Faraji-Dana R, Zamani A, Entezami M, Mortazavi SMJ.


Direct and indirect effects of exposure to 900 MHz GSM radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on CHO cell line: Evidence of
bystander effect by non-ionizing radiation. Environ Res. 2019 Apr 1. pii: S0013-9351(19)30197-5. doi:
10.1016/j.envres.2019.03.063.


Highlights
• Short-term exposure to radiofrequency radiation (RFR) emitted from mobile phones may cause genotoxic effects.
• RFR has both targeted and non-targeted effects on cells.
• RFR-induced non-targeted effects include bystander effect.
• The biological effects of RFR are possibly mediated by oxidative stress.
• Extracellular ROS can trigger molecular signals in non-targeted cells.
Abstract
INTRODUCTION: The rapid rise in global concerns about the adverse health effects of exposure to radiofrequency radiation (RFR) generated by common devices such as mobile phones has prompted scientists to further investigate the biological effects of these environmental exposures.

Non-targeted effects (NTEs) are responses which do not need a direct exposure to be expressed and are particularly significant at low energy
radiations. Although NTEs of ionizing radiation are well documented, there are scarcely any studies on non- targeted responses such as bystander effect (BE) after exposure to non-ionizing radiation. The main goal of
this research is to study possible RFR-induced BE.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31036329

Pawlak R, Krawiec P, Żurek J. On Measuring Electromagnetic Fields in 5G Technology. IEEE Access. 7:
29826-29835. March 5, 2019. DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2902481


Abstract
At the awakening of the new 5G network as the network of services, issues related to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) will become one of the key aspects for the cost-effective establishment of the 5G infrastructure.

The new 5G services will meet the rigorous demand for bandwidth through the implementation of a large number of densely located base stations operating in the millimeter-wave range. Introduction of new emission sources, working in parallel with already existing 2G/3G/4G mobile technologies, raises concerns about exceeding the admissible EMF exposure limits. This paper analyzes issues and challenges related to EMF measurements in 5G technology, which are crucial for the assessment of EMF compliance with regulatory limits. We point out that the existing methodologies, dedicated to EMF measurements in 2G, 3G, and 4G networks, are not suitable for 5G. The reason is the use of new techniques, such as massive MIMO and precise beamforming
together with higher frequency bands so that the existing measurement methods can lead to significantly overestimated results when they will be applied to 5G networks. Such results, in conjunction with the restrictive
legislation on the EMF limits that apply in some countries, may have the negative impact on 5G network deployment, making it difficult to achieve the intended 5G network capabilities.

We also propose an alternative method of EMF exposure assessment that is based on calculations and simulations and allows obtaining an accurate estimation of the EMF distribution in the 5G environment.

Open access paper: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8660395