Luckily I came across this 72 page pdf file giving an up to date view of the 5G ecosytem which was written by Digital Catapult on behalf of InnovateUK.

It lists all the relevant info on 5G including funding, players,activities, ambitions, local council involvement, spectrum news, academic involvement,testing and projects.

It refers to Telecommunications and Network Industries having the opportunity to shape the 5G landscape and admits that there is a lack of transparency by the Industry for commercial reasons.

It also shows the link between companies funding 5G via academia.

All in all a very telling read.

Full 72 Page PDF here; https://assets.ctfassets.net/nubxhjiwc091/2aeGqlM3q4m4WW48y6gkOm/d4dba6029fead7538f246ff81b0a5be6/DC_5gMapping_FinalforWeb_Single.pdf#page=28&zoom=page-actual,-229,424

When I first began campaigning against 5G, I was interviewed by Richie Allen. I had seen Marks videos and asked Richie to interview him, I told Mark that I had done so.

Mark went on to have many more interviews but for some reason wanted nothing to do with the 5G campaign, he was only interested in getting people to join his political party, SUN.

Never the less I had already changed the 5G leaflets to include his political party, expecting his approval meant that he would help the campaign too, even if it just meant mentioning it on FB let alone in interviews.

He never did.

I contacted a EMF research group to ask about Gateshead and the 5G connection.

I was informed that they had offered to go to Gateshead after talking to Mark, that they had offered to test the lamp posts and the people who had been affected, all free of charge.

This was offered several times and was refused by Mark. They did NOT beg him as he has lied during a debate, why would anyone have to beg to test a lampost? Its not exactly owned by him or in his house! They asked him twice.

They informed him that the equipment that he was using was not sufficient.

Some people offered to help Mark with his campaign against 5G and he declined.

Others mentioned that it would be a good idea to keep a log and test intermittently, he declined.

I then put the research group into contact with a  a local from Gateshead, this woman had also supported Mark and even got him several interviews and they were able to pinpoint the  same areas that Mark tested. There was no 5G coming from the lamp posts.

This leads me to the conclusion that Mark and his brother, Graham,  who has been on my FB friend list under a false name of Ben Travis for some time, are not to be trusted.

In a recent debate with me he claimed that the EMF research group called BEMRI do not know what they are talking about yet the group holds one of the scientists who has put his name to a petition calling for a moratorium on 5G, along with other scientists.

Steele is happy to quote this fact in interviews even though he claims they do not know about 5G.

He claims that BEMRI are likened to Cancer Research in a debate, this is known NLP tactics, by deflecting away from the question and putting the idea in peoples mind ( people who are aware of the scam of Cancer Research) that BEMRI is also a con. This group have been involved in public awareness of the dangers of EMF and RF for nearly 60 years.

He also claims that I do not know anything about 5G but is happy to add my website to his for further information.

His arguments that Gateshead are transmitting 5G are lies, used to get people to join his political group that has NO chance of stopping 5G, it would take 3 years to even get a seat and that would be far too late.They have openly stated that 5G will be rolled out over the next 2 years!

Stop following false leaders.

This man added my Interviews via YT to his website, these were Interviews conducted BEFORE I realised what he was really about. He added these just recently, even AFTER we had debated the issues in which I had called him out, so why add them afterwards?

He called me a stalker in that debate, why? Because I had posed questions in a chat box in which he was repeating his lies about Gateshead, a public interview that asks for questions in a chat box.

Ask yourself, how is it possible for the lies about Gateshead lamposts to go mainstream on his say so? It is called Cointelpro.

We have a campaign that anyone can join and help to highlight 5G in your own community. A campaign that this man has known about since its start but who refused to even mention it, why? Because he wants you to do nothing and leave it to him and his brother to ‘ Save Us Now’. No, Its long past expecting politicians to save you, save yourself and others by joining a real fightback.https://www.vigiliae.org/5g-mass-action-campaign/https://www.vigiliae.org/5g-mass-action-campaign/

Ask Steele how is it possible that he and his brother have mobile phones with just one digit at the end different?

Government issues.

Ask the Steele brothers how they managed to get their products sold on an Israeli Homeland Security Website.

Has also got his product being sold in the UK Defence Supply Chain, as we can see here, he also has his product being sold on the Israeli Homeland security website.
UK Defence Supply has other organisations linked to it, as seen by their website, one of which is InnovateUK, who are the organisation funded by the Dept of Digital, Culture, Media and Sport, to push the 5G agenda.
They awarded the so called 5G test bed competition to various companies and councils and they also funded the Uk-Israeli Hub technology Conference in Israel in January 2018, they have also been given an award for Smart technology.

Written by Paul Fitch

A day of Action is planned for all subjects in need of awareness.

On Saturday 15th Sept 2018 at Hyde Park – 12pm -3pm

A day of coming together raising much needed awareness into the many dangers humanity and indeed all life on earth face .
A day of bringing all activists together under one umbrella.
A day to finally unite the troops , for all causes,and concerns, from Fracking, Chemtrails, Vaccine damage,5G, EMF and so on.
All towns and cities,up and down the land taking to the streets and having much needed interactions, with our brothers and sisters,who are still under a sleepy spell .
Time to end the censorship on social media.
Flyers are being made ,and will be available shortly on pdf download ,on the event page on FB for all of the above mentioned and more.
Mass awareness,and knowledge are key,if we are to stand any chance of success,in taking back mother earth ,and our power .
You are key
You can affect change
Time to believe in yourself.
Time to step away from the keyboard.

https://www.facebook.com/events/291294894739743/?active_tab=about

Letter to the Editor – Brain Tumours: Rise in Glioblastoma Multiforme Incidence

Authors’ Comment on “Brain Tumours: Rise in Glioblastoma Multiforme Incidence in England 1995–2015 Suggests an Adverse Environmental or Lifestyle Factor”, Alasdair Philips, Denis L. Henshaw, Graham Lamburn, and Michael J. O’Carroll

Journal of Environmental and Public Health

Letter to the Editor (3 pages), Article ID 2170208, Volume 2018 (2018)

Published 25 June 2018

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Journal of Environmental and Public Health

Volume 2018, Article ID 7910754, 10 pages

https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/7910754

Research Article

Brain Tumours: Rise in Glioblastoma Multiforme Incidence in England 1995–2015 Suggests an Adverse Environmental or Lifestyle Factor

Alasdair Philips

,1,2 Denis L. Henshaw,1,3 Graham Lamburn,2 and Michael J. O’Carroll4

1Children with Cancer UK, 51 Great Ormond Street, London, WC1N 3JQ, UK

2Powerwatch, Cambridgeshire, UK

3Professor Emeritus, University of Bristol, UK

4Professor Emeritus, Vice–Chancellor’s Office, University of Sunderland, UK

Correspondence should be addressed to Alasdair Philips; alasdair.philips@childrenwithcancer.org.uk

Received 19 December 2017; Revised 14 March 2018; Accepted 21 March 2018; Published 24 June 2018

Academic Editor: Evelyn O. Talbott

Copyright © 2018 Alasdair Philips et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Objective. To investigate detailed trends in malignant brain tumour incidence over a recent time period. Methods. UK Office of National Statistics (ONS) data covering 81,135 ICD10 C71 brain tumours diagnosed in England (1995–2015) were used to calculate incidence rates (ASR) per 100k person–years, age–standardised to the European Standard Population (ESP–2013). Results. We report a sustained and highly statistically significant ASR rise in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) across all ages. The ASR for GBM more than doubled from 2.4 to 5.0, with annual case numbers rising from 983 to 2531. Overall, this rise is mostly hidden in the overall data by a reduced incidence of lower-grade tumours. Conclusions. The rise is of importance for clinical resources and brain tumour aetiology. The rise cannot be fully accounted for by promotion of lower–grade tumours, random chance or improvement in diagnostic techniques as it affects specific areas of the brain and only one type of brain tumour. Despite the large variation in case numbers by age, the percentage rise is similar across the age groups, which suggests widespread environmental or lifestyle factors may be responsible. This article reports incidence data trends and does not provide additional evidence for the role of any particular risk factor.

1. Introduction

The causes of brain tumours in adults remain largely unknown [1]. In 2011, the World Health Organisation (WHO) prioritised the monitoring of detailed brain tumour incidence trends through population–based cancer registries [2]. This article reports recent changes in malignant brain tumour incidence in England that include age, sex, morphology and tumour location.

2. Materials and Methods

2.1. Data

The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD–O) is a dual classification, with coding systems for both topography and morphology [3]. The relevant topology codes are listed in Table 1, along with the number of tumours diagnosed in 1995 and 2015.

Table 1: ONS WHO ICD10 brain tumour data for England.

There are 102 different ICD–O–3.1 morphology codes used in the data set, though many have few cases. The morphology code describes the cell type and its biological activity / tumour behaviour.

WHO last updated their classifications in 2016, but their changes have minimal impact on our analysis of the data [4, 5]. Malignant brain neoplasms without histology are recorded as ICD–10 D43 (D43.0 & D43.2 supratentorial).

We used anonymised individual–level national cancer registration case data from the UK Office of National Statistics (ONS) for all 81,135 ICD10–C71 category primary malignant brain tumours diagnosed in England for the years from 1995 to 2015, plus 8,008 ICD10–D43 supratentorial malignant tumours without histology/morphology data from 1998–2015. The initial data is supplied by the National Cancer Registration Service (NCRS). The ONS then apply further validation checks and the UK Department of Health use the ONS data to inform policy making. The ONS state their cancer data are generally within 2% of the correct values [6]. Until about 2005, some cases in the oldest age–groups will not have been recorded in the cancer registries. Since 2005 this error is likely to be small.

Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM), the most common and most malignant primary tumour of the brain, is associated with one of the worst five–year survival rates among all human cancers, with an average survival from diagnosis of only about 1 year. This ensures that few cases will be unrecorded in the ONS database and we show that their number of GBM tumours is similar to NHS hospital inpatient numbers. The data include the year of diagnosis, age at diagnosis, sex of patient, primary site and morphology code. National population estimates of age and gender by calendar year were also obtained from ONS data [7] and age–specific incidence rates per 100,000 person–years and for a wide variety of tumour types were calculated in 5-year age group bins for males and females separately.

Some published incidence analyses have used different criteria as to which glioma and astrocytoma should be considered malignant. WHO considers Grades I to IV as biologically malignant even if they have not been graded histologically malignant. We have taken the WHO/IARC morphology behaviour codes /3, /6 and /9 as being histologically malignant which means that Grade I and II tumours are classed as low–grade malignancies.

We are not aware of any specific bias in the ONS data. There is a slight data–lag in cancer registry data, which are regularly checked and updated if necessary, but are generally stable after 3 to 5 years. Our ONS data extract is dated July 2017.

Brodbelt et al. (2015) [8] reported an analysis of treatment and survival for 10,743 GBM cases in England over the period 2007–2011, which had an overall median survival of only 6.1 months, rising to 14.9 months with maximal treatment. Brodbelt et.al.’s GBM case total from English hospital data is only 0.5% higher that our ONS GBM total of 10,687 cases for the same time period; this suggests that a very complete UK cancer diagnosis and registration system is now in place. In contrast, Ostrom et al. (2015) [9] reporting on USA SEER brain tumour data provide a scatter–plot that shows a median complete registration and histological confirmation level of only about 65%, with the best examples returning less than 75% full completion in 2012.

2.2. Confounding

We had a large number of categories and sub–categories in the data. It was necessary to combine some of these to increase the resolving power. We ran analyses separately for each site (C71.0 to C71.9), for each main type of tumour, and for tumour grade (I to IV). It was immediately obvious that the most significant change was in the incidence of GBM in frontal and temporal lobes. The obvious potential confounders would be the C71.8 (overlapping) and C71.9 (unspecified) categories due to better imaging techniques and we discuss this later.

2.3. Standardisation

Incidence rates rise dramatically with age and standardisation is necessary as population age profiles are changing with time. We calculated age–standardised incidence rates (ASR) per 100k person–years to the current recommended European Standard Population (ESP–2013), as it best represents the reality of the case burden on society [10]. Adjusting European cancer incidence to the World Standard Population is not helpful as the age-spectra are so different.

Table 2 lists the morphology codes with the highest case numbers, totalling 80354 tumours. Included in our analyses are an additional 781 cases in 78 other categories,

each with fewer than 100 cases over the 21 years. A full listing of all the cases in the data set is provided in the Supplementary File [S1].

Table 2: ICD-O-3 morphology codes with more than 100 cases between 1995-2015 inclusive. (A full listing of all the morphology codes and cases is present in the Supplementary file).

We needed to group data to improve resolution and reduce random data noise. We examined infant and child neoplasms separately, but did not find any statistically significant time–trends. Three age-groups seemed reasonable. We chose a child, teenage and young-adult group (0-29), a main middle-age group (30-54) and an older age group (over 55 years of age). These reasonably split the population into three roughly equal (20, 18 and 16 million) groups of people. The case totals in the three groups were about 9.5k, 19.5k and 52k respectively. We tested moving the cut-point boundaries by 5 years in both directions and it made little difference to the overall results.

2.4. Analysis

The cases were analysed by morphology, topology, sex, age, age–specific and age–standardised incidence. The Annual Average Percentage Change (AAPC) and corresponding 95% CI and p–values were calculated using Stata SE12.1 (StataCorp). A linear model on the log of the age–standardised rates, which tests for a constant rate of change (), best fitted the data. See Supplementary File sections S2 and S3.

2.5. Background

In a major 2013 review article, Hiroko Ohgaki and Paul Kleihues [11] wrote “Glioblastoma is the most frequent and malignant brain tumor. The vast majority of glioblastomas (~90%) develop rapidly de novo in elderly patients, without clinical or histologic evidence of a less malignant precursor lesion (primary glioblastomas). Secondary glioblastomas progress from low-grade diffuse astrocytoma or anaplastic astrocytoma. They manifest in younger patients, have a lesser degree of necrosis, are preferentially located in the frontal lobe, and carry a significantly better prognosis.”

Overall primary malignant brain tumour ASRs are only rising slowly and are often considered fairly static. Figure 1 shows the age–standardised trends from 1971 to 2015. From the 1970s to about 2000 there was a fairly steady rise in recorded overall incidence, however since then the rise has slowed, though clinicians have been reporting a rise in high-grade, aggressive tumours.

Figure 1: Age–standardised overall trends from 1971 to 2015 using data in ONS MB1 series, including a smaller number of supratentorial neoplasms without histology or morphology data coded D43.0 & D43.2. The data table for this figure is in the SI file as [S4].

Overall adult survival for all malignant brain tumours after diagnosis during 2006–2010 was about 35% for one year and 15% for five years, falling to about 3% for aggressive grades–III and IV tumours. ONS data show age-standardised death rates from malignant brain tumours (C71) have increased by 7% between 2001 and 2015, showing that improvements in treatment alone are inadequate and that there is a need to find ways of preventing brain cancer [12].

3. Results

Comparing new case numbers in 2015 with 1995 shows an extra 1548 aggressive GBM tumour cases annually. Figure 2 and Table 3 show that up to about 2004 the

overall rise in GBM incidence (Annual Average Percentage Change (AAPC) 5.2%, 95% CI 3.7–6.6, p < 0·00003) could be mostly compensated for by the fall in incidence of all lower grade astrocytoma and “glioma, malignant, NOS, ICD10–93803”. This leaves a fairly steady rise in the GBM ASR from 2004 to 2015 (AAPC 2.2%, 95% CI 1.4–3.0, p < 0.0001).

Table 3: ICD10-C71 and (D43.0 + D43.2) cases and age-standardised (ESP-2013) incidence rates.

Figure 2: Age–standardised incidence rates for all C71 glioma cases diagnosed between 1995 and 2015 analysed by type and year (Data in Table 3). Grouping details: (1) = 94403–94433 (2) = 93843, 94003–94303 (3) = 93803 (4) = 93813, 93823, 93903–93943, 94503–94733.

Ohgaki and Kleihues [11] reported that most secondary GBMs are found in younger middle-age people and most primary GBMs are in over 60s. We tested our (30–54) and (>54) age group data, splitting the total GBM into de novo and promoted tumours. We estimated the maximum possible number of promoted tumours using the change in the grades II and III diffuse and anaplastic astrocytomas. The results are shown in Figures 3(a) and 3(b). These are discussed later.

Figure 3: Age–standardised rates for two age groups. The possible split between de novo and secondary promoted GBMs is based on incidence change of Grades II and III diffuse and anaplastic astrocytoma.

We found a large decrease of ASR over time for Grade–II diffuse astrocytoma, a slight rise in ASR for WHO Grade–III anaplastic astrocytoma (94013; 2832 cases). There was little change in rates of anaplastic oligodendroglioma (94513; 1339 cases), anaplastic ependymoma (93923; 313 cases) Grade–II oligodendroglioma (94503; 2671cases), embryonal, or ependymal tumours.

Figure 4 shows the relative increase in age-specific GBM incidence between the averaged periods (1995–1999) and (2011–2015) for 5–year age–groups. This 1.5-fold change is remarkably similar across the age–groups, suggesting a universal factor.

Figure 4: Relative change in GBM age–specific incidence rates (ASpR) averaged over two five-year periods 1995-1999 and 2011-2015 in 5-year age bands and gender.

Figure 5 shows ASR GBM rates for frontal lobe, temporal lobe, unspecified & overlapping (C71.8 & C71.9) and ‘all other brain regions’. Most of the rise is in the frontal and temporal lobes, and most of the cases are in people over 55 years of age, with a highly statistically significant overall AAPC of 7.6% (see Table 4). There was an extra rise in frontal and temporal GBM incidence between 2006 and 2008, which coincided with a slight reduction in the GBM ASR in overlapping and unspecified regions and may be due to improved imaging.

Table 4: Age standardised incidence rates to ESP-2013 (/100k people).

Figure 5: Frontal and temporal lobe GBM age–standardised incidence rates by tumour site and year (data table in the SI as [S6]).

4. Discussion

Using sufficiently high–quality data, we present a clearer picture of the changing pattern in incidence of brain tumour types than any previously published. We report a sustained and highly statistically significant ASR rise in GBM across all ages and throughout the 21 years (1995–2015), which is of importance both for clinical resources and brain tumour aetiology.

Dobes et al. (2011) [13] reported a significant increase in malignant tumour incidence from 2000 to 2008 in the ≥65–year age group. In a second article they noted an increasing incidence of GBM (APC, 3.0; 95% CI, 0.5–5.6) in patients in the same age group, especially in temporal and frontal lobes [14]. De Vocht et al. (2011) [15] reported a rise in temporal lobe tumour incidence in ONS data, but dismissed its significance. In a 2016 paper he claimed no increase in GBM incidence, but later published a major correction to the paper that shows an increase [16].

Zada et al. (2012) [17] using USA SEER data for 1992–2006 reported a rising trend in frontal and temporal lobe tumours, the majority of which were GBM, with a decreased incidence of tumours across all other anatomical sub–sites. Ho et al. (2014) [18] reported a 2.2–fold increase in glioblastoma incidence in the Netherlands over the period 1989–2010 (APC 3.1, p<0.001).

There were no material classification changes over the analysis period that might explain our findings [19], though multidisciplinary team working was strengthened (2005 onwards) and better imaging has resulted in improved diagnosis along with a more complete registration of brain tumours in the elderly. We analysed our data in 5-year age group categories to look for evidence of improved diagnosis; the data do suggest diagnosis and registration have improved in people aged over 70. However, at earlier ages the incidence rate of ‘all’ glioma (and all C71) registrations have remained almost constant, whereas the rates for lower–grade tumours fell until about 2006 and have since remained fairly static as the rate for GBM has risen steadily.

Most GBM cases seem to originate without any known genetic predisposition. GBMs from promoted lower–grade gliomas usually have different molecular genetic markers from de novo GBMs [20]. The 2016 revision of the WHO classification of CNS tumours [3, 4] highlights the need for recording molecular genetic markers and divides glioblastomas into two main groups. The IDH–wildtype mostly corresponds to clinically defined primary or de novo glioblastoma and accounts for about 90% of cases. The remaining 10% are IDH–mutant cases, which usually arise in younger patients and mostly correspond to secondary or promoted lower–grade diffuse glioma [11, 21]. Figures 3(a) and 3(b) support the conclusion of Ohgaki and Kleihues [11] that promoted (secondary) tumours mainly occur in younger people and that de novo GBMs dominate in the over-54 age group. It is important that this pattern is monitored using modern genetic techniques.

GBM tumours are almost always fatal and are not likely to have been undiagnosed in the time-frame of our data. It is possible that some elderly cases were not fully classified, but then they should have been recorded as ICD10–D43. However, as D43 rates have remained very constant over this time period (see Figure 1), this is unlikely to have been a significant confounder.

4.1. Possible Causal Factors

We cite examples of some possible causal factors that have been discussed in the literature that could contribute changes in GBM incidence. In an important 2014 “state of science” review of glioma epidemiology, Ostrom et al. [22] list and discuss a number of potential factors that have been associated with glioma incidence, some of which we list below.

Ionising radiation, especially from X-rays used in CT scans, has the most supportive evidence as a causal factor. Due to the easy availability of CT imaging and relative

lack and higher cost of MRI imaging in UK NHS hospitals, CT scans are often used, especially for initial investigations. Their use over the period 1995-2013 is shown in the Supplementary File S6. Given the time-frame of the trend that we have identified, we suggest that CT imaging X-ray exposures should be further investigated for both the promotion and initiation of the rising incidence of GBM tumours that we have identified.

Preston et al. (2007) [23] concluded that radiation–associated cancer persists throughout life regardless of age at exposure and that glioma incidence shows a statistically significant dose response. Our oldest age group also experienced atmospheric atomic bomb testing fallout and some association with ingested and inhaled radionuclides should not be dismissed as a possible factor. England was in one of the highest exposed regions for atmospheric testing fallout as determined by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, UNSCEAR 2000 Report [24]. Further information is given in Supplementary File S7. If only some of the population were susceptible and received a significant dose, any resulting extra cancers would show up in the ONS data.

The European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects by Andersen et al. (2017) [25] found suggestive evidence of an association between traffic-related air pollution and malignant brain tumours.

There is increasing evidence literature that many cancers including glioma have a metabolic driver due to mitochondrial dysfunction resulting in downstream genetic changes in the nucleus [26–28].

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) judged both power–frequency ELF (2002) [29] and radio–frequency RF (2011) [30] electromagnetic fields as Group 2B ‘possible human carcinogens’. Villeneuve et al. (2002) [31] concluded that occupational (ELF) magnetic field exposure increases the risk of GBM with an OR = 5.36 (95% CI: 1.2 – 24.8). Hardell and Carlberg (2015) [32] have reported an increase in high–grade glioma associated with mobile phone use. The multi-country Interphone study [33] collected data from 2000 to 2003 and included few people over 55 years of age and would have been unable to resolve any association involving older–aged people. Volkow et al. (2011) [34] found that, in healthy participants and compared with no exposure, a 50-minute cell phone exposure produced a statistically significant increase in brain glucose metabolism in the orbitofrontal cortex and temporal pole regions closest to the handset.

5. Conclusions

(1)We show a linear, large and highly statistically significant increase in primary GBM tumours over 21 years from 1995–2015, especially in frontal and temporal lobes of the brain. This has aetiological and resource implications.(2)Although most of the cases are in the group over 54 years of age, the age–standardised AAPC rise is strongly statistically significant in all our three main analysis age groups.(3)The rise in age–standardised incidence cannot be fully accounted for by improved diagnosis, as it affects specific areas of the brain and just one type of brain tumour that is generally fatal. We suggest that widespread environmental or lifestyle factors may be responsible, although these results do not provide additional evidence for the role of any particular risk factor.(4)Our results highlight an urgent need for funding more research into the initiation and promotion of GBM tumours. This should include the use of CT imaging for diagnosis and also modern lifestyle factors that may affect tumour metabolism.

Data Availability

The data were obtained from the UK Office for National Statistics (ONS), who are the legal owners of the data. Some data are publicly available in the ONS annual MB1 data series, which are freely downloadable from the ONS website, but this article uses the latest updated data, plus ICD–O–3 morphology codes, extracted under personal researcher contract from the ONS database in July 2017. ONS Data Guardian approval was required for the supply, control and use of the data. A nominal charge is made by the ONS for such data extraction. We are not permitted to supply the raw ONS extracted data to anyone else. Other researchers can obtain the latest data directly from the ONS in a similar manner. The authors provide some extra tables and figures in the Supplementary File downloadable from the journal website.

Conflicts of Interest

Alasdair Philips: Independent Engineer and Scientist. (a) Trustee of Children with Cancer UK (unpaid); (b) On a voluntary unpaid basis, has run Powerwatch for 25 years (a small UK NGO providing free information on possible health associations with EMF/RF exposure); (c) Technical Director and shareholder of EMFields Solutions Ltd., who design and sell EMF/RF measuring instruments and protective shielding items; (d) Shareholder of Sensory Perspective Ltd.; (e) Occasional voluntary advisor to the Radiation Research Trust (Registered Charity). Denis L. Henshaw: (a) Scientific Director of Children with Cancer UK (honorarium basis); (b) Shareholder of Track Analysis Systems Ltd., a company offering radon measurement services; (c) Voluntary scientific advisor for Electrosensitivity UK (Registered Charity). Michael J. O’Carroll: (a) Chairman of Rural England against Overhead Line Transmission group; (b) Occasional advisor to the Radiation Research Trust. Graham Lamburn: (a) Acts as voluntary unpaid ‘Technical Manager’ for Powerwatch.

Authors’ Contributions

Alasdair Philips and Graham Lamburn conceived the study and first–drafted most of the manuscript with significant input from Denis L. Henshaw and Michael J. O’Carroll. Graham Lamburn organised the data obtained from the UK ONS and wrote the database analysis scripts. All authors had full access to the results of all analyses and have provided strategic input over several years of following the ONS brain tumour data. All authors have approved the final manuscript. Alasdair Philips is the guarantor for the ONS data.

Funding

This research received no funding from any external agency or body. The ONS data extracts were paid for personally by Alasdair Philips. Administration costs were paid for personally by the authors.

Acknowledgments

We are very grateful to Professor Geoffrey Pilkington and Professor Annie Sasco for their invaluable comments on early drafts of this paper. We thank the ONS for providing the data and Michael Carlberg, MSc for advice regarding statistical analysis.

Supplementary Materials

S1. Table of data morphology coding and the case numbers used in the study. S2. GBM case numbers and age-specific incidence rate data used in the study. S3. Sample STATA data and DO script. S4. Data table for Figure 1. S5. Data table for

Figure 5. S6. CT and MRI use in the UK NHS. S7. Some notes on atomic bomb testing and other nuclear fallout in England. (Supplementary Materials)

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Letter to the Editor

 

What Can You Do? Inform yourself.

More than five decades of research by the world’s renowned and dedicated scientists and medics provide clear evidence of damage inflicted upon biological systems by electromagnetic fields. Do your own research using keywords.

The medical profession, schools, the media and other organisations are forced to follow government guidelines which claim ‘no harm’ in spite of the evidence. SAR ratings are a ploy to protect vested interests and have no clinical value. Consider the alarming rise in cancer and brain tumours which goes unquestioned with an apparent unwillingness to examine the wider causes. Why? Simply follow the money! For what reason is Cancer UK in denial over EMF pollution that cause cancer!

As the technology becomes more addictive, the public can be easily controlled, particularly through social media; for the young this level of control and compliance is becoming the norm. Things can be made safer only if the public demand it and resist the constant pressure to incorporate technology into every aspect of their lives. Do we need to stop and re-evaluate our relationship with this life threatening technology? The first step to improving your health and well- being is reducing your exposure to radiation. Try turning your mobile/ devices off to see how your life improves. Replace Wi-Fi and cordless phones with Ethernet cable and non- wireless routers. Withdraw your consent to SMART meters (link below). This is a democratic legal right and yes, one can refuse to have these meters installed.

Screening offers some protection, but be sceptical about EMF protection devices claiming to neutralise electromagnetic fields or harmonise the body. Also beware of scams using nonsensical pseudo-science in literature in order to trick sufferers of EMF pollution or other health issues into purchasing useless gadgets. In one third of cases the perceived short-term benefits are likely due to the well known placebo effect – or power of the mind.

More information. www.bemri.org Bio Electromagnetic Research Initiative –

stopsmartmeters.org.uk/ – powerwatch.org.uk/

Is Electromagnetic pollution making you ill?

More than five decades of research have linked electromagnetic pollution [EMP] to many health conditions. Microwaves, [RF] penetrate our body damaging cells and DNA. Electromagnetic frequencies [EMF’s] deplete immune systems and can bring about cancer, brain tumours and childhood leukaemia. More and more people experience sleeping difficulties, headaches, chronic fatigue, and other allergies. Additional symptoms include muscular complaints aches/weakness, irritability, nose bleeds, nausea, dizziness, flu like symptoms, tinnitus type noise, depression, sensitivity to chemical products, blurred vision, burning, itchy or tingly red skin, short-term memory loss, heart attacks, strokes, autoimmune diseases, and inability to concentrate. Behavioural problems in children are increasing and this technology is now recognised as an addiction.

Electromagnetic pollution continues rising above levels quite unimaginable, even twenty years ago. They follow a pattern linked to ever increasing cases of cancers, brain tumours, autism, childhood leukaemia and Alzheimer’s. The sudden rise among children aged below 15 years who suffer brain tumours is alarming news. The young have thinner sculls and tumours may take a while to grow.

Electromagnetic pollution affects all biological systems. Insects and some bird species numbers are declining and caused by a range of pollutants, electro and chemical. During experiments at Silwood Park Campus of Imperial Collage London, bees leaving a hive became disorientated after a DECT base station was placed about 1 metre from the hive and switched on for 5 minutes and when switched off, the bees returned to normal activity soon after. In Germany, a research team subjected bees to these signals over a longer period, found the hive abandoned and the bees never returned.

Electromagnetic Pollution within the Home [EMP]

Communities protest over the growing number of mobile base station antennas mounted close to residential properties and schools, but are seemingly unaware that a Wi-Fi router or cordless phone within their own home emit a high degree of radiation, most often far greater than those entering from external communication masts.

Wi-Fi also called Wireless LAN [wLan] Wi-Fi acts like a mobile phone mast pulsing microwaves 24/7 and not simply power levels from one device, but the cumulative radiation emitted from all units in the home, classroom or workplace. It includes transmissions from nearby cell phone masts, TETRA, Wi-Fi and radiation penetrating the building from neighbour’s devices.

IPAD’s, tablets, Wii and Xbox emits a high degree of radiation, is often placed on the lap dangerously close to the body. Babies and young children mostly at risk from any form of pollution, especially electro-pollution! Children have little choice, adults make it. The choice of wireless over Ethernet suggests everyone is affected.

Schools ban Wi-Fi The French Government and other countries have banned mobile phones in some schools and public buildings. Russia consistently set better safety standards over many years and are most concerned about EMF pollution. Some UK schools have outlawed phones, and prudently should now prohibit WI-FI.

Digital Enhanced Cordless Phone. [DECT] These produce powerful microwave radiation from their base units, 24/7, even when not being used. DECT signals can travel into adjacent buildings and gardens and often physically detected by those sensitive to this damaging radiation. Even if one is unable to feel it, our body is cumulatively responding to this radiation the same as one can have cancerous cells or other defects in the body without being immediately aware.

Wireless baby monitors. Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications is the standard used for many baby monitors and can emit radio frequency fields of 6 volts/per metre. [Twice as strong as found 100 metres away from a mobile phone mast] For comparison, the maximum recommended 2002 Salzburg indoor level for GSM is just 0.02 volts per metre. Baby monitors are not safe when placed 1 metre from the child as some suppliers claim. Digital technology, due to its ‘pulsed’ nature becomes more harmful at lower levels of power than the older analogue technology.

Energy-saving CFL bulbs & fluorescent tubes. The EU ban on incandescent lamps may leave hundreds of thousands of vulnerable sick and disabled people in the UK unable to safely use electric light in their homes. Light sensitivity can arise from a range of health conditions, including the genetic disorder Xeroderma Pigmentosum (XP), the auto-immune disease lupus, forms of eczema and dermatitis, photosensitivity, ME, electro-sensitivity and many more. Some common symptoms are severe stinging, burning and itching of the skin, along with red rash. CFLs each contain mercury and when broken present a health hazard. Vast numbers will be dumped on landfill sites risking contamination of future water supplies.

Multiple Chemical Sensitivity is on the increase and some victims are also electrosensitive. [All biological systems are electro–chemical]. Sufferers may experience excruciating pain and sleep deprivation and unable to escape to a safe haven or have to endure family and friends failing to understand their condition and often believe the GP’s regular diagnosis, “It’s all in the mind’ who perhaps decide to pass the patient on to a psychiatrist. Neither receives training along these lines of investigation and drugs are the last thing sufferers need. Suicides are on the increase for these reasons.

Wireless Smart Meters. The plan is to replace electric and gas meters in all homes and business in the UK with smart meters under pretext they save energy and money. Costs in the USA and Australia increased after meters were installed, and people soon reported having headaches, insomnia, nausea, and dizziness, glaucoma, and heart palpitations.

As with other EMF sources, transmissions from wireless smart meters operating 24/7 can cause serious health issues. Apparently, the UK role out is estimated to cost over £12 billion and the consumer, as always, picks up the tab. Smart Meters are not compulsory [2018] and those already fitted will need replacing probably around 2020. Smart Meters also invade our privacy and are easily switched off remotely by the utility, hacked, [as with computers] or via other wirelessly linked devices. A route ripe for terrorists and hackers with little way to protect ourselves.

Courtesy of BEMRI – New-Awareness-1

During a court case in 1998, Dr McKinley, a senior scientist with the National Radiological Protection Board, explained that their data on tissue conductivity had been supplied to them by Microwave Consultants Ltd, which is on the payroll of a cell phone company. It transpired that virtually none of the NRPB documents is peer reviewed and that Dr McKinley himself had not authored any experimental studies; in fact he admitted he had no expertise in biology.

The industry also tries to control the science by controlling the interpretation of findings and how they are presented – if they ever are – to the general public. Many corporations have their own “team” who travel to all meetings, and whose job it is to create negative “spin” on presentations that point to possible harm or suggest caution.

Not only are the science labs, government offices and science interest groups associated with cell-phone science becoming puppets of the phone industry, but the media are so heavily influenced by the phone companies that it is becoming increasingly difficult to disseminate impartial information and comments, even though they may be of long term benefit to the industry, and are vital for public health.

The auction of 3G licences to the mobile phone companies brought in £22.5 billion plus an annual income then of around 15 billion to the UK exchequer. These figures will be dwarfed by the sale of 4G and 5G licences. No wonder when commercial interests are at stake there seem to be outright denial of relevant, honest scientific data.

SAFETY LEVELS: When it comes to asking about safety, concerning any communication device or installation not one single independent consultant is able to give an answer. If anyone asks whether a certain level of electromagnetic pollution is safe they are usually quoted a UK safety limit laid down by the NRPB/HPA/PHE. In fact evidence from many medical and scientific bodies shows that no one can be sure there is a safe level. Countless studies have clearly demonstrated that biological systems can be impaired even by extremely low levels of radiation.

Electromagnetic radiation power density increases weekly as more people use electronic equipment. We are bombarded with an accumulation of radiation from satellites, power supplies, radar, broadcast antennas, – in fact all electrical systems and appliances. More people are becoming electro-sensitive and most are unaware of what is really attacking their body. Doctors are generally in the dark about the effects of EMF pollution, partly because they follow government guidelines and receive no training on these issues although the BMC must be aware of the problem as it was discussed in the UK medical journal.

At the moment there really is no cure for the problem apart from avoidance, though there is the opportunity to develop systems that can be of true benefit to us all in terms of health and performance if the electronics and telecommunications industries could be persuaded to listen, unfortunately money rules!

You pick up the mobile/cordless phone once, twice, ten times a day – or only a few times a month. But, each and every time, you’re gambling that this time’ won’t be the occasion when the radiation causes irreparable damage to your brain. It only takes a seemingly small damage trauma at a very small location to result in tissue damage, DNA damage, or chromosome mutations. Adults and children need to overcome the addiction now ruling ones lives and damaging health.

A report in May 2002 New Scientist informed us of a development of a weapon using intense electromagnet fields producing effects “ranging from disruption of short-term memory to total loss of control of voluntary bodily functions”. We already have this kind of weapon in the mobile phone and other wireless devices.

SCIENCE – Scientists have discovered that microwave radiation from mobile phone transmissions affect the brain in a process known as heat shock – an effect similar to heating the brain but with no actual rise in temperature. Heat shock causes the body to release proteins, which can damage or kill brain cells. Geneticist Dr David De Pomerai told how tests showed exposure for an hour to mobile phone radiation can double the heat shock proteins in cells. Dr Alan Preece of Bristol University revealed the same radiation caused vessels to dilate, thus creating a rush of blood to the head. Other studies have found that microwaves also weaken the blood brain barrier, which protects the brain against blood stream infections. Other research shows that they have specific effects on brain cells and brain function that can lead to brain degenerative diseases, cancer and weakening of the immune system.

It has been found that many lymphocytic leukaemia sufferers live close to power lines, underground mains cables and transformers, or spend long periods of time close to equipment that emits this kind of radiation. Myeloid cancer cases appear to be clustered around radio and TV masts. Such findings suggest that 50 Hz and RF frequencies [which include mobile phone frequencies] may affect living systems in various ways. The power levels from mobile signals are also known to increase after rain has fallen and during periods of low cloud. Some who suffer tinnitus and live close to mobile phone masts have found their condition is noticeably worst during this kind of weather.

Health risks arise from digital cordless [DECT] telephones. The base unit that cradles the handset and functions as transmitter and receiver produces an electrical field that is actually greater than that of a mobile phone. Since it radiates even when the phone is not being used, it is like using a mobile phone non-stop. These phones should never be put in bedrooms or close to where people sit. Better still dump them, along with baby alarms, which also emit dangerous EMF radiation. As the very young are more vulnerable, cots and beds should always be placed well away from electrical wiring and appliances, and from metal objects such as radiators, which act like antennas for microwave and other radiation.

Other high-risk devices that emit microwave radiation include WiFi, WLan, WIMAX, wireless interactive whiteboards, and burglar alarms using microwave detectors. Operating WLan systems in schools is equivalent to having a mobile phone mast permanently emitting life-threatening pulsed microwaves within the classroom.

Tests carried out the NRPB [National Radiological Protection Board – afterwards called Health Protection Agency [HPA] and now renamed Public Health England [Note the word protection is removed] revealed that ultraviolet beams from projectors used with electronic whiteboards in most schools could damage the eyes. The viewers peripheral retina can be over-exposed even when they are not looking directly at the projector’s apparent light source, or damaged if they look into the beam from a few yards away just for twenty seconds. Other radiation effects noted in schools include short- term memory loss, headaches, nosebleeds, hyperactivity, and lack of concentration.

Suspicion that electrical fields cause respiratory illness dates back to the 1950s, when it was found that placing asthmatics in areas with low electrical fields got rid of their symptoms. A new study by scientists at Imperial Collage London suggests that electrical fields from computers, televisions and other everyday items make people more prone to asthma, influenza and other respiratory diseases.

This research provides additional academic backing for campaigner’ s demands for precautionary measures to be taken against the thickening electro-smog we are exposed to from sources such as mobile phones and their masts, WiFi systems and household electrical devices. As the amount of electro-smog has multiplied many times over in recent years, science has increasingly shown it can cause a wide range of ailments, from respiratory diseases to difficulties in concentrating, from sleeplessness to cancer including many more illnesses.

Scientists have found that the electrical fields given off by a wide variety of household items, including computers, televisions, cookers, energy saving lamps and wiring, can charge minuscule particles in the air such as viruses, bacteria, allergens and highly toxic pollutants. Because many of these are so tiny – less than 80 times the thickness of the human hair – they often remain airborne almost indefinitely and so are can be readily inhaled. If they carry increased electrical charge they are more likely to stick to the tissue of the lungs and respiratory tract and to human skin, thereby increasing risk of infection and impact on the body.

The higher the electrical field and particle charge, the greater the danger, as particles with greater charge can hit the tissue with greater speed. As they crash land they become deformed, which makes them more firmly stuck and harder to remove.

Electrostatic charges, such as those given off by clothing and sheets made from synthetic materials, add to the problem. Research has also shown that high electrical fields greatly reduce concentrations of charged molecular oxygen, which is readily absorbed by the body, enhances biological functions and can kill harmful microbes.

TETRA [Terrestrial Trunk Radio Systems] is a microwave frequency now used by our police force and other bodies throughout the UK. The frequency of 17.6 Hz emits pulses occurring 17.6 times per second that match brain frequencies, and it is believed that this can penetrate deep into the brain, damaging cell communication. An article in the Daily Telegraph disclosed that six people at a police station at North Walsham, Norfolk, including a Chief Inspector, other officers and civilian workers, blamed their health problems on a TETRA communications system.

Chief Inspector Strong and his staff believe that bouts of dizziness and severe headaches began when a new TETRA transmitter was installed. About 25 other people living nearby also complained of similar symptoms and others of repeated nosebleeds, especially among children, along with disturbed sleep and skin problems. The officers, who had been referred to the Force’s doctor, were warned not to discuss this publicly and are apparently forbidden to speak out. One month previously the family of a police motorcyclist, who had died of cancer of the oesophagus, said he had complained of headaches when he began to use his TETRA handset, and was convinced it was to blame for his condition.

POLICY – The cell-phone industry controls the policy arm of the cell-phone science by being a major contributor of research funds, and by making sure that its personnel are placed on safety standard committees and even the World Health Organisation’s EMF study projects. Thus, all the relevant policy bodies are led by cell-phone personnel and consultants, or have a majority of them on their staffs. This is even true of scientific organisations. The Bio-electromagnetic Society [BEMS] which should be made up of independent scientists has a large contingent of members who work for the cell phone companies or are paid consultants.

In the UK the HPA is funded roughly half from the industries it represents and half from the Government, thus all of its associates have a financial interest in recommending the product, even if it may prove to be unsafe. Every single spokesperson on safety issues is linked in one way or another with the communications industry.

BAD SCIENCE – To avoid liability and promote public favour, all corporations can utilise “bad science” under the guise of objective and reliable science in order to convince public and courts in toxic lawsuits claiming their scientific “research” is reliable and do not endanger public health. In doing so, they avoid paying compensation, decrease liability and increase profits. Science is for hire with express purpose of reaching a “conclusion” and supporting an industry or corporate regulatory or litigation objective. Law and PR firms are set up for the sole purpose of contacting scientists to generate false data, challenge regulations or create spin that supports industry and organisations faced with liability suits. The bulk of scientists are  employed by or receive payment from industry and governments.

Courtesy of BEMRI New Awareness 1

Limits to Electronic Growth: the Internet’s Demands and Solutions to Help It Last Longer
by Katie Singer
The Internet is the largest thing that humanity has built.
 Every online activity (every text message, email, Facebook post, Google search, Amazon purchase, photo exchange, software download, video, smart appliance message, GPS search) requires energy intensive infrastructure. The Internet’s infrastructure includes access networks (cell sites) and data storage centers, which require electricity and water.
Manufacturing every electronic device requires electricity, water and minerals mined under abusive conditions. The world now has more cell phones than toilets or toothbrushes. Per person, electronics users generate 73 pounds of e- waste per year.
 All this—and yet, the Internet’s energy demands, greenhouse gas emissions and waste have kept largely invisible and unknown.
Most people consider Internet access a necessity. If that’s true, then every municipality,
service provider, manufacturer, school, business, household and individual is now challenged
to become informed about the Internet’s impact on climate change, biodiversity and human
health—and to participate in reducing it.
As Bill Torbert, Boston College management professor emeritus says, “If you’re not aware that you’re part of the problem, you can’t be part of the solution.”